Author Topic: Has Australia Reconciled With Its Colonial Past?  (Read 352 times)


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Re: Has Australia Reconciled With Its Colonial Past?
« on: September 19, 2021, 03:47:04 am »

Australia, including Tasmania and other surrounding islands
British/Australian victory

No treaty signed
British/Australian control over Australia established, Indigenous Australians dispossessed
Indigenous population decline due to killings, starvation, forced migration
The British Government decided to establish a prison colony in Australia in 1786.[10] Under the European legal doctrine of terra nullius, Indigenous Australians were not recognised as having property rights and territory could be acquired through 'original occupation' rather than conquest or consent.[7]
The frontier wars were particularly bloody and bitter in Queensland, owing to its comparatively large Indigenous population. This point is emphasised in a 2011 study by Ørsted-Jensen, which by use of two different sources calculated that colonial Queensland must have accounted for upwards of one third and close to forty percent of the indigenous population of the pre-contact Australian continent.[71]

Queensland represents the single bloodiest colonial frontier in Australia.[72][73] Thus the records of Queensland document the most frequent reports of shootings and massacres of indigenous people, the three deadliest massacres on white settlers, the most disreputable frontier police force, and the highest number of white victims to frontier violence on record in any Australian colony.[74] In 2009 professor Raymond Evans calculated the indigenous fatalities caused by the Queensland Native Police Force alone as no less than 24,000.[75] In July 2014, Evans, in cooperation with the Danish historian Robert Ørsted-Jensen, presented the first-ever attempt to use statistical modelling and a database covering no less than 644 collisions gathered from primary sources, and ended up with total fatalities suffered during Queensland's frontier wars being no less than 66,680—with Aboriginal fatalities alone comprising no less than 65,180[76]—whereas the hitherto commonly accepted minimum overall continental deaths had previously been 20,000.[77][78] The 66,680 covers Native Police and settler-inflicted fatalities on Aboriginal people, but also a calculated estimate for Aboriginal inflicted casualties on the invading forces of whites and their associates. The continental death toll of Europeans and associates has previously been roughly estimated as between 2,000 and 2,500, yet there is now evidence that Queensland alone accounted for an estimated 1,500 of these fatal frontier casualties.[3][77][78][79]
The largest reasonably well documented massacres in south east Queensland were the Kilcoy and Whiteside poisonings, each of which was said to have taken up to 70 Aboriginal lives by use of gift of flour laced with strychnine. Central Queensland was particularly hard hit during the 1860s and 1870s, several contemporary settlers mention the "Skull Hole" or Mistake Creek massacre on Bladensburg station near Winton which in 1901 was said to have taken up to 200 Aboriginal lives.[84] In 1869 the Port Denison Times reported that "Not long ago 120 aboriginals disappeared on two occasions forever from the native records".[85] Frontier violence peaked on the northern mining frontier during the 1870s, most notably in Cook district and on the Palmer and Hodgkinson River goldfields, with heavy loss of Aboriginal lives and several well known massacres. Battle Camp and Cape Bedford belong among the best known massacres of Aboriginal people in Cook district, but they were certainly not the only ones. The Cape Bedford massacre on 20 February 1879 alone was reported to have taken as many as 28 lives, this was retaliation for the injuring (but not killing) of two white "ceder-getters" from Cooktown.[86] In January 1879 Carl Feilberg, the editor of the short lived Brisbane Daily News (later editor-in-chief of the Brisbane Courier), conveyed a report from a "gentleman, on whose words reliance can be placed" that he had after just "one of these raids ... counted as many as seventy-five natives dead or dying upon the ground."[87]

"White" methods never change.

See also:

There were many massacres of Aboriginal people and Torres Strait Islander people by settlers following the colonisation of Australia by the British Empire, in 1788. These events were a fundamental element of the Australian frontier wars,[1] and frontier massacres were a significant component of Aboriginal casualties across the continent.[2]

A project headed by historian Lyndall Ryan from the University of Newcastle and funded by the Australian Research Council, has been researching and mapping these massacres.[3] Significant collaborators toward this project include Jonathan Richards from the University of Queensland,[4][3][1] Jennifer Debenham, Chris Owen, Robyn Smith and Bill Pascoe. Criteria such as defining a massacre as the killing of six or more people are used and an interactive map as an online resource is included.[5][6][2] As of 3 January 2020, at least 311 frontier massacres over a period of about 140 years had been documented, revealing "a state-sanctioned and organised attempt to eradicate Aboriginal people".[2][failed verification]

"White" objectives also never change.

One example:

The following list of massacres was compiled by settlers from white perpetrator sources such as letters and diaries, and thus does not take into account Gunai Kurnai knowledge of the history of occupation.[4]

1840 - Nuntin- unknown number murdered by Angus McMillan's men
1840 - Boney Point - "Angus McMillan and his men took a heavy toll of Aboriginal lives"[5]
1841 - Butchers Creek - 30-35 shot by Angus McMillan's men[5]
1841 - Maffra - unknown number shot by Angus McMillan's men
1842 - Skull Creek - unknown number murdered
1842 - Bruthen Creek - "hundreds murdered"
1843 - Warrigal Creek - up to 150 people shot by Angus McMillan and his men[6]
1844 - Maffra - unknown number murdered
1846 - South Gippsland - 14 murdered
1846 - Snowy River - 8 murdered by Captain Dana and the Aboriginal Police
1846-47 - Central Gippsland - 50 or more shot by armed party hunting for a white woman supposedly held by Aborigines; no such woman was ever found.
1850 - East Gippsland - 15-20 murdered
1850 - Murrindal - 16 poisoned
1850 - Brodribb River - 15-20 murdered

"White" narrative stereotypes never change either.....


During the British colonisation of Australia, land ownership was forcefully transferred from the various Indigenous populations to the colonists. Several military and paramilitary organisations such as the British Army, Native Police, Border Police and New South Wales Mounted Police were utilised by the British to eliminate any Aboriginal resistance to this acquisition of land. However, it was often the responsibility of the pioneering colonists themselves to take the initiative in enforcing land ownership transferral. Usually this was done violently through the use of firearms to intimidate or kill the native people. Some colonists though, chose an alternative approach, using poison concealed in consumables as a method of extirpating the original custodians of the land. The tainted consumables were either knowingly given out to groups of native people, or purposely left in accessible places where they were taken away and eaten collectively by the local clans. As a result, incidents of mass deaths of Aboriginal Australians due to these deliberate mass poisonings occurred throughout the continent.[1][2]

The mass poisonings were generally done in a secretive manner but there are many documented cases with some involving police and government investigations. They appear to have begun as a colonial method in Australia during the 1820s when toxic substances utilised in the sheep farming industry became readily available. Chemicals such as arsenic, strychnine, corrosive sublimate, aconitum and prussic acid were all used. There are no cases of convictions being reported against any of the perpetrators of these mass poisonings.
Some examples of mass poisonings
This list is incomplete; you can help by adding missing items. (January 2021)
1824, Bathurst - members of the Wiradjuri people poisoned with arsenic infused damper.[1]
1827, Hunter Valley - colonists along the Hunter River poisoning Aboriginal people with corrosive sublimate.[3]
~1833, Gangat - large number of Aboriginal people killed on the Australian Agricultural Company's million acre land grant near Gloucester by being given poisoned flour in up to three separate incidents.[4][5]
1840s, Wagga Wagga - pioneer colonists to the region, William Best and Alexander Davidson both recounted large scale deliberate poisonings of local Wiradjuri people in the early 1840s. The poison was delivered via milk or through the poisoning of waterholes.[6][7] Mary Gilmore, who lived near Wagga Wagga as child, also documented several cases of mass poisonings that occurred around the Murrumbidgee River.[8][9]
1840, Glen Innes - reports of deaths of Aboriginal people by prussic acid poisoning investigated by government authorities but denied by pastoralists.[10]
1841, Wannon River - at least seven Aboriginal people poisoned to death on one of the Henty brothers' leaseholds.[11]
1842, Tarrone - at least nine Aboriginal people poisoned to death near Port Fairy by being given poisoned flour on the squatting run of James Kilgour.[11]
1842, Mount Kilcoy - a large number of Aboriginal people were poisoned to death at an outpost of Evan Mackenzie's Kilcoy property.[12][13]
1844, Ipswich - around a dozen Aborigines were poisoned at the government-run farm known as Plough Station near Ipswich. A convict, John Seller, offered them biscuits containing arsenic after a dispute over him taking a female member of the clan. Three died and Seller was charged with their murder. He avoided conviction but as he was already a serving a sentence for a previous crime, he was transferred south to the Cockatoo Island prison where he was released two years later.[14]
1846, Tyntynder - between 8 and 20 Aboriginal people killed by eating poisoned flour given to them by Scottish colonist Andrew Beveridge near Swan Hill.[15]
1847, Whiteside - at least three Aboriginal people killed by arsenic-laced flour being placed out for them to take. This occurred on the Whiteside squatting run of Captain George Griffin.[16]
1847, Kangaroo Creek - close to 30 Aboriginal people killed by poison given to them in flour by Thomas Coutts near Grafton. Coutts was arrested and sent to Sydney but the case was dropped.[17]
1849, Port Lincoln - five Aboriginal people including an infant were killed after being given flour mixed with arsenic by hutkeeper Patrick Dwyer near Port Lincoln. Despite being arrested with strong evidence against him, Dwyer was released from custody by Charles Driver, the Government Resident at Port Lincoln.[18]
1856, Hornet Bank - a number of Aboriginal people killed by being given strychnine-laced Christmas pudding in the lead-up to the Hornet Bank massacre.[19]
1860s, Warginburra Peninsula - Edward Hampton "Cranky" Baker added arsenic to his food stores knowing they would be stolen by the local Aboriginal people living on his "Peninsula" land-holding adjoining Shoalwater Bay. The shooting and poisoning of these people greatly diminished their number.[20] Baker also had land near the town of Rockhampton in which supplies of arsenic-laced flour were placed. In 1870 several South Sea Islanders ate this flour and one died. Baker faced a magisterial inquiry but the matter was dropped.[21][22]
1874, Bowen River Inn - five Aboriginal people were poisoned outside the Bowen River Inn on the upper Bowen River. Two were killed and buried in shallow graves in the riverbed while the other three recovered.[23]
1885, Florida cattle station - a large number of Yolngu people became ill and died after being given poisoned horse-meat on John Arthur Macartney's newly established Florida cattle station in north-eastern Arnhem Land.[24]
~1890, Dungog - two young Aboriginal people begging near to town "were easily disposed of" by being given poison in their food.[25]
1895, Fernmount - six Aboriginal people poisoned to death near Bellingen by being given aconite to drink by John Kelly. Kelly was suspected of manslaughter and committed for trial but was found not guilty and discharged.[26][27]
1896, Lakeland Downs - Arsenic deliberately placed in baking powder killed a significant number of Aboriginal people near Lakeland as "just retribution" for the spearing of a Scottish colonist.[28]
1908, Mt Ida - eight Aboriginal people killed by poison near Leonora. Explorer William Carr-Boyd described those killed as dirty, lazy, thieving "human wolves" who "got something more to eat than they bargained for".[29]
1931 Sandover River There is also a suggestion that William George Murray participated in another massacre or mass poisoning of Aboriginal Australians while he was posted at Arltunga.[30]
1936, Timber Creek - five Aboriginal people killed by arsenic being put in their food near Timber Creek.[31]
1981, Alice Springs - two Aboriginal people were killed and fourteen others were made ill by drinking from a bottle of sherry which had strychnine deliberately added to it. The poisoned bottle was intentionally left by persons unknown in a place of easy access to this group of Aboriginal people.[32]
2015, Collarenebri - three Aboriginal people, Norman Boney, Sandra Boney and Roger Adams, were poisoned to death after buying methanol-laced moonshine from Mary Miller in the town of Collarenebri. Miller was not charged in relation to the deaths and only received a $5,000 fine for selling liquor without a licence from magistrate Clare Girotti.[33][34]

« Last Edit: September 19, 2021, 03:54:30 am by 90sRetroFan »