Author Topic: How did the English Colonize America?  (Read 407 times)

guest5

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How did the English Colonize America?
« on: April 30, 2021, 01:07:17 am »
How did the English Colonize America?
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H2Gl4QFA6mA
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For the benefit of God

Which is actually Yahweh of the Judeo-Greco-Christian and Judaism\Jewish religion. Yahweh IS the colonial g-d, enslaver and oppressor, of all non-Westerners!!!

This is how Yahweh signs his name by the way and why some of us refer to him as "Old Scratch":

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guest55

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The Long Journey to Reveal the Oregon Trail’s Racist History
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As the U.S. grapples with its legacy of prejudice, one parent is bringing the fight to Oregon public schools.
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One recent spring, Layna Lewis dropped her daughter off at Irvington Elementary School in Portland, Oregon for the fourth-grade class’s overnight trip to Oregon City, where the kids would learn about the Oregon Trail by participating in hands-on activities. As is the custom for this trip, which is considered a tradition for many Oregonians, the kids that morning were dressed in pioneer garb. Lewis, who is African American and Native American, was disturbed watching kids of color running around in their bonnets, knowing they wouldn’t have been able to own land in the days of the Oregon Trail.

“It was glaringly inaccurate,” she says of the field trip, concerned that the racial dynamics of the time were being glossed over.

Shortly after, Lewis made an eight-minute video called “Oregon FAIL” where she interviewed four girls in the class about the field trip, which has been organized by the Multnomah Education Service District (MESD) since 1998 and serves 3,000 students around the state. In the video, the girls, one of whom is her daughter, recall how narratives about people of color and Native Americans had been omitted in the lessons, which are taught by high school volunteers.

“It makes me wonder about my ancestors’ history and where were they in this story?” one black girl says to the camera, in response to the question Lewis posed asking them to relay their experience of the field trip.

Another girl says Native Americans were treated “like side characters. Throw them out, get away.”

The video was posted in a neighborhood Google group. News of it made its way to Irvington School’s then-principal, Kathleen Ellwood, who is not originally from Oregon and only attended the field trip’s evening square dance. She claims she wasn’t familiar with the educational aspects of the trip and was surprised by the content in the video.

Oregon’s racist history is not always taught in schools in the state, and is still unknown to many native and longtime Oregonians, but it’s a long and fraught one. There were three exclusion laws passed during the mid to late 1800s, in the state’s early years, preventing black people from residing in Oregon. The first, called Peter Burnett’s Lash Law, named after the leader of the provisional government there, stated freed slaves had to leave or be lashed. The second law forbade black people from entering the state – the only state to enact such a law – and the third, which made it illegal for them to own property, became a clause in the constitution. It wasn’t removed until 1926. Later, Oregon became a confluence for the Ku Klux Klan, with 35,000 members living there in the early 1920s. Furthermore, the practice of “redlining” meant realtors could not sell homes in white neighborhoods to black people, per an ethics code. The small black population was subsequently confined to the Albina district, and when many migrated to the city after the war, was met with racist sentiment. The exclusionary laws shaped the racial makeup of Portland, into today. According to the 2013 census, Portland had a white population of 72.7 percent, the most of any big city in America.

Though Portland is viewed as progressive and accepting place, local efforts have been ongoing for years to bring Oregon’s discriminatory past to light. One includes Beyond The Oregon Trail, an alternative curriculum created in 1999 by Oregon Uniting, a grassroots group focused on racial reconciliation. Sue Alperin, a founder of Oregon Uniting, created the supplement in part to help kids of color feel included in Oregon’s story.

“We felt kids get a lot of history about the Oregon Trail, but rarely does it discuss [the pioneers’] impact, of their meeting Native Americans or the African Americans who were on the trail,” says Alperin. “It’s basically a white picture. The untold history is what we were trying to get at.”

The curriculum includes a general explanation of the exclusionary laws, chapters about minority groups in Oregon, lessons about white Americans who were allies to Oregon lawmakers and stories of people who made a difference in their communities. After years of lobbying and a “frustrating journey,” says Alperin, the Portland Public School district made it mandatory for all eighth grade social studies teachers to teach the ten-hour course, trained by Oregon Uniting.

But that didn’t change the fourth-grade lessons.

After the Oregon FAIL video got mixed reactions from the community (some teachers were upset and wary) a handful of other parents from the Irvington School joined Lewis in her effort to expand the elementary school curriculum to include a more complete picture of the state’s history.

They sought out influential community leaders like the black activist Donna Maxey, who runs a salon called Race Talks that aims to dismantle barriers between races, and met with the PTA. They connected with local groups such as Oregon Black Pioneers, an organization dedicated to preserving the history of African Americans in Oregon, a heritage “largely unknown,” according to their website. They gave a presentation at the school to suggest the curriculum mention the slaves who were concealed under wagon floorboards in order to cross the border.

The parents began setting up meetings with the field trip organizers, where as many as 14 were sometimes present. They brought up specific concerns about the curriculum, one of which was the activity where kids survey and claim land. It is one of many exercises among lessons on how to churn butter, make candles, write in a journal and pack the wagon. In the “survey the land” activity, the kids are tasked with staking out their plot by looking at a map, which did not designate areas occupied by Native Americans.

During the discussions with the educational board, the Irvington School committee asked the PTA to withhold funds for the field trip unless the field trip curriculum reflected an inclusive history and that the PTA ensured that the educational extensions it funded were accurate. Lewis says a request such as that is “what motivates people to do the right thing.” In October of 2016, Willamette Week, the local alternative weekly newspaper, wrote that students were boycotting the trip altogether. A day later, the then board chair of MESD sent an email to Ellwood and the vice principal, asking them to pass along his note to the students in Lewis’s video.

“Too often in public education, we allow a slow-burning racist undercurrent to infect our curricula, our textbooks, and even our teaching and learning,” he wrote.

Several months and a handful of meetings later, the educational company agreed to incorporate narratives about Native Americans by the spring session of 2017, specifically amending the “staking the land” activity.

“We look at other people who lived there before pioneers and how those numbers were reduced by impacts made, whether it was disease or other things,” says Shauna Stevenson, the site supervisor for the Oregon Trail field trip.

The Irvington School’s efforts come at a time when other fights across the country to erase and expose racist pasts have resulted in conflict, while spurring a national conversation. Yale University decided to change the name of its Calhoun College, named after John C. Calhoun, a defender of slavery, for Grace Murray Hopper, a computer scientist, after initially standing by the original name. Several pushes to dismantle confederate statues and flags in the South led to violent protests, including the deadly clash in Charlottesville, Virginia over the planned removal of the Robert E. Lee statue.

Though the Irvington School’s efforts paid off, several acknowledge the work has just begun.

“We’ll have to see what they do over time and how much truth they want to tell of what went down over time, but it’s a start,” says Maxey.

Lewis is currently working to make a feature-length sequel to “Oregon FAIL.”

“[The educational board] did make some revisions,” she says. “There’s still much more to come. It took a lot of effort and maneuvering to keep us at the table.”
https://getpocket.com/explore/item/the-long-journey-to-reveal-the-oregon-trail-s-racist-history?utm_source=pocket-newtab

90sRetroFan

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Re: How did the English Colonize America?
« Reply #2 on: August 14, 2021, 11:54:27 pm »
It's OK to be a "white" conservator (especially one who believes in Manifest Destiny):

https://www.yahoo.com/news/disturbing-history-conservatorships-were-used-135842098.html

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The disturbing history of how conservatorships were used to exploit, swindle Native Americans
...
As a lawyer with decades of experience representing poor and marginalized people and a scholar of tribal and federal Indian law, I can attest to the way systemic inequalities within local legal practices may exacerbate these potentially exploitative situations, especially with respect to women and people of color.

Perhaps nowhere has the impact been so grave than with respect to Native Americans, who were put into a status of guardianship due to a system of federal and local policies developed in the early 1900s purportedly aimed at protecting Native Americans receiving allotted land from the government. Members of the Five Civilized Tribes of Oklahoma – Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, and Seminole nations – were particularly impacted by these practices due to the discovery of oil and gas under their lands.
...
A conservatorship, or a related designation called a guardianship, takes away decision-making autonomy from a person, called a “ward.” Although the conservator is supposed to act in the interest of the ward, the system can be open to exploitation especially when vast sums of money are involved.

This was the case between 1908 and 1934, when guardianships became a vehicle for the swindling of Native communities out of their lands and royalties.

By that time, federal policy had forced the removal of the Five Civilized Tribes from eastern and southern locations in the United States to what is presently Oklahoma. Subsequent federal policy converted large tracts of tribally held land into individual allotments that could be transferred or sold without federal oversight – a move that fractured communal land. Land deemed to be “surplus to Indian needs” was sold off to white settlers or businesses, and Native allotment holders could likewise sell their plots after a 25-year trust period ended or otherwise have them taken through tax assessments and other administrative actions. Through this process Indian land holdings diminished from “138 million acres in 1887 to 48 million acres by 1934 when allotment ended,” according to the Indian Land Tenure Foundation.

During the 1920s, members of the Osage Nation and of the Five Civilized Tribes were deemed to be among the richest people per capita in the world due to the discovery of oil and gas underneath their lands.

However, this discovery turned them into the victims of predatory schemes that left many penniless or even dead.

Reflecting on this period in the 1973 book “One Hundred Million Acres,” Kirke Kickingbird, a lawyer and member of the Kiowa Tribe, and former Bureau of Indian Affairs special assistant Karen Ducheneaux wrote that members of the Osage Nation “began to disappear mysteriously.” On death, their estates were left “not to their families, but to their friendly white lawyers, who gathered to usher them into the Happy Hunting Ground,” Kickingbird and Ducheneaux added.

Lawyers and conservators stole lands and funds before death as well, by getting themselves appointed as guardians and conservators with full authority to spend their wards’ money or lease and sell their land.

Congress created the initial conditions for this widespread graft and abuse through the Act of May 27, 1908. That Act transferred jurisdiction over land, persons and property of Indian “minors and incompetents” from the Interior Department, to local county probate courts in Oklahoma. Related legislation also enabled the the Interior Department to put land in or out of trust protection based on its assessment of the competency of Native American allottees and their heirs.

Unfettered by federal supervisory authority, local probate courts and attorneys seized the opportunity to use guardianships to steal Native Americans estates and lands. As described in 1924 by Zitkála-Šá, a prominent Native American activist commissioned by the Secretary of Interior to study the issue, “When oil is ‘struck’ on an Indian’s property, it is usually considered prima facie evidence that he is incompetent, and in the appointment of a guardian for him, his wishes in the matter are rarely considered.”

The county courts generally declared Native Americans incompetent to handle more than a very limited sum of money without any finding of mental incapacity. Zitkála-Šá’s report and Congressional testimony documented numerous examples of abuse. Breaches of trust were documented in which attorneys or others appointed conservators took money or lands from Nation members for their own businesses, personal expenses or investments. Others schemed with friends and business associates to deprive “wards.”
...
One such woman in Zitkála-Šá’s report was Munnie Bear, a “young, shrewd full-blood Creek woman … [who] ran a farm which she inherited from her aunt, her own allotment being leased.” Munnie saved enough money to buy a Ford truck and livestock for her farm, with savings remaining in a bank account. Once oil was discovered, however, the court appointed a guardian, who appointed a co-guardian and retained a lawyer, each of whom deducted monthly fees that depleted Bear’s funds. During the period of her guardianship, she was unable to spend any money or make any decisions about her farm or livestock, nor did she control her bank investment.

Zitkála-Šá’s report displays the extent of this practice:

    “Many of the county courts are influenced by political considerations, and … Indian guardianships are the plums to be distributed to the faithful friends of the judges as a reward for their support at the polls. The principal business of these county courts is handling Indian estates. The judges are elected for a two-year term. That ‘extraordinary services’ in connection with the Indian estates are well paid for; one attorney, by order of the court, received $35,000 from a ward’s estate, and never appeared in court.”

Wards were often kept below subsistence levels by their conservators while their funds and lands were depleted by the charging of excessive guardian and attorneys’ fees and administrative costs, along with actual abuse through graft, negligence and deception.
...
the lands and funds lost as a result of guardianships were not restored nor did descendants of those swindled ever enjoy the benefit of their relatives’ lands and monies either.

NEVER FORGIVE. NEVER FORGET.
« Last Edit: August 14, 2021, 11:56:40 pm by 90sRetroFan »

90sRetroFan

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Re: How did the English Colonize America?
« Reply #3 on: September 30, 2021, 10:18:22 pm »
https://abcnews.go.com/US/century-arson-decimated-chinatown-san-jose-apologize-past/story?id=80188124

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Local lawmakers in San Jose, California, are expected to vote on a resolution next week that would apologize to Chinese immigrants and their descendants for the role the city played in "systemic and institutional racism" more than a hundred years after one of the city's thriving Chinatowns was burned by arsonists.

San Jose was once home to five Chinatowns built up by immigrants arriving to the U.S. in the late 1800s, according to a memorandum posted to the city's website that acknowledges the pain and unequal treatment suffered by these early Asian American communities.

"These early Chinese immigrants were met with virulent, systematic racism, xenophobia and the violence of anti-Chinese forces from early on and were regularly denied equal protection before the law," the memo states. "In addition to federal legislation such as the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, City policies, resolutions, and other actions of the City of San José and the City Council directly contributed to the xenophobic discrimination and racial violence faced by Chinese immigrants."
...
The memo notes how one of the most well-known of San Jose's Chinatowns succumbed to arson in 1887 after the city council at the time declared the site a public nuisance and ordered it removed to make way for the construction of a new city hall. The blaze displaced some 1,400 people and destroyed homes and businesses.

A plaque erected in 1987 on the Fairmont Hotel -- which sits on the site of the former Chinatown -- acknowledges the atrocities, but the memo notes that there "has been no formal accountability" for the city's policies that led to the arson. The resolution seeks to change this.

A draft of the resolution chronicles the contributions Chinese immigrants made to the local economy, as well as the violence and racism they faced -- noting how the first church in 1869 to teach Sunday school to Chinese immigrants was burned to the ground and the minister at the time received death threats.

The resolution also acknowledges the still-persisting impacts of centuries of racist policy, stating, "the recent rise in anti-Asian violence and racial discrimination demonstrates that xenophobia remains deeply rooted in our society" and that "Asian-Americans are still considered perpetual foreigners."

It calls for the story of Chinese immigrants "and the dehumanizing atrocities committed against them in the 19th and early 20th century" to not be purged from the city's history.

"The City must acknowledge and take responsibility for the legacy of discrimination against early Chinese immigrants as part of our collective consciousness that helps contribute to the current surge in anti-Asian and Pacific Islander hate," it states.

The resolution seeks to apologize to all Chinese immigrants and their descendants, acknowledge the injustices and brutality, as well as recognize the contributions and resilience of the Chinese community.
...
"The apology by the City of San Jose for anti-Chinese policies comes very late, but it is deeply meaningful for the Chinese American community and symbolically offers peace and reconciliation," she said. "The apology recognizes the hardships and struggles of our ancestors by the Chinese Exclusion Act which deprived Chinese naturalization to U.S. citizenship, inciting cities to drive out the Chinese by outlaw violence or legal methods."

It would only be meaningful if the descendants of the colonialists were prohibited from reproducing.

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San Jose Mayor Sam Liccardo told San Francisco ABC station KGO, "It's appropriate that every generation, we do this."

"That we remember this," Liccardo added, "because tragically, these lessons are lost from one generation to another. And even more tragically, history does repeat itself."

Not least because the bloodlines responsible were allowed to keep reproducing.

guest55

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Re: How did the English Colonize America?
« Reply #4 on: October 10, 2021, 09:26:54 pm »
Keep in mind the term "tribal nation" is an oxymoron!

Indigenous Peoples Day Comes Amid a Reckoning Over Colonialism and Calls for Return of Native Land
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Renaming a national holiday to celebrate Native culture is one thing, but many Indigenous peoples are looking for greater recognition of the land grab that deprived them of ancestral homes.
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In many parts of what is now the United States, communities have in recent years replaced Columbus Day with Indigenous Peoples Day.

Celebrating Indigenous cultures every October is important. But in this moment when the U.S. is reckoning with legacies of racism and colonialism, many Indigenous nations call for something more – the return of ancestral lands.

Having spoken to Native Americans activists, leaders and community members in the course of my research into sacred sites protection movements, I understand that land is often the center of Indigenous life. It is not just where people live, but a site of complex relationships among humans, waters, plants, animals and spiritual beings. This is why the famous Standing Rock Sioux scholar and activist Vine Deloria Jr. wrote “American Indians hold their lands – places – as having the highest possible meaning, and all their statements are made with this reference point in mind.”
Stolen Lands

In my research with California Bay Area Ohlone tribes, I have learned how land is central to identity and culture. Even in highly urbanized places like San Francisco and Oakland, Ohlone people have talked to me about how the land still holds meaning.

As a non-Indigenous Latino scholar, I have also been challenged to continually reimagine those places – and the continent as a whole – as Indigenous land. Like many people in the U.S., my education growing up taught me to think about Indigenous peoples in the past tense – looking at their history and not their contemporary experiences.

This reimagining is necessary given important U.S. policies related to Indigenous lands. Laws such as the Indian Removal Act of 1830 worked to displace tribes from their homelands into “Indian Territory” in Oklahoma. This law intended to open lands for non-Native settlers.

Such is the context of the Trail of Tears, the forced removal of the Cherokee and other tribal nations from their homelands to reservations in the 1830s.

 
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Similar policies are found in the Allotment Act of 1887, which sought to dissolve communally held reservation lands into individual allotments. After allotments were granted, the “excess land” was sold to white settlers. Tribes lost 90 million acres as a result.

Some policies sought to take away land through less explicit means. These include the establishment of Indian boarding schools that worked to assimilate tribal youth. Native children were forcibly taken from their homes to assimilate them. Many suffered physical, sexual and psychological abuse.

Other policies like the Indian Relocation Act of 1956 worked to assimilate Native peoples by encouraging them to move to major cities.

This last policy ended up backfiring significantly. Instead of assimilating, Native peoples in urban spaces eventually joined forces to create the American Indian Movement in 1968. This intertribal political movement sought to protect tribal lands, stop police brutality and hold the U.S. government accountable to treaty agreements with tribal nations.
Beyond Acknowledgments

In recent years many institutions in the U.S. have attempted to recognize the wrongs done to Indigenous peoples. For example, some organizations, universities and businesses have issued land acknowledgments – brief statements that mention the Indigenous peoples of the land where the institution operates.

The land acknowledgment at Syracuse University, where I work, is typical of such statements:

“The Syracuse University College of Arts and Sciences would like to acknowledge with respect the Onondaga Nation, firekeepers of the Haudenosaunee, the indigenous peoples on whose ancestral lands Syracuse University now stands.”

These statements work to bring awareness to Indigenous lands and peoples. They can also be a first step toward solidarity between Native and non-Native peoples. Leaders like Corrina Gould of the Bay Area’s Confederated Villages of Lisjan/Ohlone encourage institutions to take this further. “Land acknowledgment must begin with a relationship with the people on whose land you are on,” she said at a workshop in San Francisco. “And I think the next step I’m looking for is, how do we now live in reciprocity with one another on our homelands?”

Indigenous leaders also call for the return of land. The social media hashtag campaign #LandBack addresses this directly. Forbes writer Michela Moscufo traces the origins of the campaign to Indigenous activists’ critique of the ways Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau has handled pipelines through First Nations territories. Moscufo also notes that the phase “Land Back” has been used in the U.S. as well.

This has included protests by Lakota peoples and allies during President Trump’s visit to Mount Rushmore on July 4. Mount Rushmore is part of the Black Hills, a sacred place to the Lakota that was taken by U.S. forces after gold was discovered in 1874, a violation of the 1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie.
Resistance at the U.S./Mexico Border

The phrase “Land Back” has also been invoked in resistance to the construction of the border wall between the U.S. and Mexico. Tribal nations whose territories exist along this border such as the Kumeyaay in California, Tohono O'odham in Arizona, and others are active in protesting against its construction.
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In September 2020, two Kumeyaay activists were arrested while protesting the wall construction. The San Diego Tribune reported that activists were part of “Camp Land Back,” which began in August to protest the wall. Kumeyaay leaders have voiced concerns that the construction of the wall will disrupt ancestral lands, especially sacred and burial sites. On the Instagram page @kumeyaaydefenseagainstthewall, the campaign describes itself as a “Small indigenous initiative that is rooted in prayer to defend Kumeyaay lands and people.”
Expanding Indigenous Peoples Day

The Yellowhead Institute, a Canadian First Nations-led research center, describes “land back” as being about “reclaiming Indigenous jurisdiction” and “breathing life into rights and responsibilities.”

As Indigenous peoples the world over continue to defend ancestral lands, Indigenous Peoples Day can have important meaning, more than just the renaming of a national holiday. It is an invitation to contend with the impacts of colonialism and the wrongful appropriation of Indigenous lands.
https://getpocket.com/explore/item/indigenous-peoples-day-comes-amid-a-reckoning-over-colonialism-and-calls-for-return-of-native-land?utm_source=pocket-newtab

Zea_mays

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Re: Non-Aryan aggressiveness
« Reply #5 on: October 22, 2021, 01:33:32 am »
Quote
John "Liver-Eating" Johnson, born John Jeremiah Garrison Johnston (July 1, 1824 – January 21, 1900), was a mountain man of the American Old West.
[...]
Rumors, legends, and campfire tales about Johnson abound. Perhaps chief among them is that in 1847, his wife, a member of the Flathead American Indian tribe, was killed by a young Crow brave and his fellow hunters, which prompted Johnson to embark on a vendetta against the tribe. According to historian Andrew Mehane Southerland, "He supposedly killed and scalped more than 300 Crow Indians and then devoured their livers" to avenge the death of his wife, and "As his reputation and collection of scalps grew, Johnson became an object of fear."[3]

Accounts say that he would cut out and eat the liver of each Crow killed.[4] This led to him being known as "Liver-Eating Johnson".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liver-Eating_Johnson

90sRetroFan

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Re: How did the English Colonize America?
« Reply #6 on: January 23, 2022, 11:27:41 pm »
It's OK for treaties to be "white":

https://us.yahoo.com/news/history-hidden-treaty-temecula-robbed-160105541.html

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History: Hidden Treaty of Temecula robbed Indigenous people of their lands
...
Between March 19, 1851, and January 5, 1852, Wozencraft, McKee and Barbour traversed California and created 18 treaties with Native American tribes. Officially called California Treaty K, but ever after known as the Treaty of Temecula, it was submitted to the U.S. Senate on June 1, 1852, by President Fillmore. But it was never ratified. Unbeknownst to the tribal signatories, the Senate rejected the treaty in closed session and ordered the document held in secret for the next 52 years.

During those years at the end of the 19th century, Indigenous people were subjugated by white settlers and the policies of state lawmakers, devastating the native population.
Those who survived were displaced onto reservations. This diaspora was set against the Gold Rush and mass immigration to California.
...
The original document of the hidden treaty was finally displayed in 2016 at the Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian in what the director said was a recognition “not only (that) the treaties that were broken, but also of the power imbalance that existed to allow treaties to be dismissed and their memory to be locked away in secrecy.”

Representatives from the Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians, Pechanga Band of Luiseno Indians, San Manuel Band of Mission Indians and Ramona Band of Cahuilla, four of the tribes affected by the treaty, were present to witness the installation of the original document 150 years after it was unceremoniously rejected by the Senate and concealed.

In September 2021, Sean Milanovich completed and published his dissertation in support of his Ph.D. entitled “The Treaty of Temecula: A Story of Invasion, Deceit, Stolen Land and the Persistence of Power, 1846-1905.” It may be found online and is recommended reading for anyone who cares about the history of California.
...
"The American invaders claimed the Indigenous land as their own and established a foreign government and subjugated the Indigenous peoples to a foreign law, American law. The Americans held the Indigenous peoples in a peon state of war and did not acknowledge their right to own land. On Jan. 5, 1852, Indigenous leaders of the Cahuilla, Cupeño, Luiseño, and Serrano attached their marks to the Treaty of Temecula surrendering their land base under duress and established a small permanent reservation.
...
Milanovich poignantly observes that the stolen land was never returned.

NEVER FORGIVE. NEVER FORGET.

90sRetroFan

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Re: How did the English Colonize America?
« Reply #7 on: August 22, 2022, 05:58:41 pm »
Continuing from:

https://trueleft.createaforum.com/true-left-vs-false-left/leftists-against-progressivism/msg15272/#msg15272

Recall:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Round_Valley_Indian_Tribes_of_the_Round_Valley_Reservation

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Relations between the various Indian groups, settlers and White employees of the reservation reached a state of extreme hostility. Bloodshed became a frequent occurrence as settlers massacred Indians, including massacres at the behest of future first Chief Justice of the California Supreme Court Serranus Clinton Hastings between the years 1850–70, which killed at least 283 men, women and children, the most deadly of 24 known state militia campaigns. The perpetrators of these massacres were paid or reimbursed for expenses by the State of California.[2]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Round_Valley_Settler_Massacres_of_1856%E2%80%931859

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The Round Valley Settler Massacres of 1856–1859 were a series of massacres committed by early white settlers of California with cooperation and funding from the government of California
...
White immigrants flooded into Northern California in 1848 due to the California Gold Rush, increasing the settler population of California from 13,000 to well over 300,000 in little more than a decade.[1][2] The sudden influx of miners and settlers on top of the nearly 300,000 Native Americans living in the area strained space and resources.

On April 22, 1850, the fledgling California state legislature passed the Act for the Government and Protection of Indians, legalizing the kidnapping and forced servitude of Indians by White settlers.[3][4][5] In 1851, the civilian governor of California declared, "That a war of extermination will continue to be waged … until the Indian race becomes extinct, must be expected."[6] This expectation soon found its way into law. An 1851 legislative measure not only gave settlers the right to organize lynch mobs to kill Indians, but allowed them to submit their expenses to the government. By 1852 the state had authorized over a million dollars in such claims.[7][unreliable source] In 1856, a San Francisco Bulletin editorial stated, "Extermination is the quickest and cheapest remedy, and effectually prevents all other difficulties when an outbreak [of Indian violence] occurs."[8]

In 1854, when the first six White settlers arrived in Round Valley, somewhere between 6,000 and 20,000 Yuki Indians inhabited the valley and its surrounding area.[9][10] Those first six settlers immediately attacked the Yuki without provocation, killing 40 of them (see Asbill Massacre).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asbill_massacre

Quote
On May 15, 1854, six Missouri-based explorers led by Pierce Asbill happened upon Round Valley while searching for a route between Weaverville, an interior mining center, and Petaluma, an important river port.[5][6] Round Valley was in an isolated, difficult to access region of the Coast Range, allowing it to remain relatively untouched by settlers and miners to this point. While crossing a meadow, the explorers spotted movement in the grass and realized that Indians were in the valley.

Asbill stated, "We've come a long way from Missouri to locate this place... an' be damned if wigglin' grass 'ull keep us away! Git a–hold of yer weapons—we'uns are goin' in!"[7]

The party proceeded to a creek bed where they encountered a large settlement of Yuki. Through the combination of superior weaponry, horses, and focused intent, the party killed approximately 40 of the people.[8]

Repercussions

Neither Asbill nor any of his fellow settlers were charged with any malfeasance for killing the nonthreatening Indians. Asbill stayed on to hunt the land and eventually began kidnapping and trafficking Yuki women to be sold to non-Indian men outside of the valley. Asbill sold 35 women in this manner by 1855.[9]

Back to previous link:

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By 1855–56 Yuki women were being kidnapped in large numbers and sold to outside men[11][12] as there was a shortage of women among the miners and settlers. Pierce Asbill, the instigator of the Asbill Massacre, stayed in the area and personally kidnapped at least 35 Yuki women over the next year.[13] Indian Agent Simon Storms reported upon arriving in 1856 that the Yuki people feared White men due to the kidnapping of women and children[14] and in 1857 Indian Agent Vincent Geiger stated that in Round Valley: "the Indians ... have very few children—most of them doubtless having been stolen and sold."[15] By 1860, settler William Frazier reported that there were no longer any children among the Indians they encountered and blamed kidnapping by outsiders as the cause.[16] Historians Sherburne Cooke and Benjamin Madley suggest that these abductions were one of several instigators of violent conflict in the valley.[17][18] William Brewer, a member of the California Geological Survey in the early 1860s, directly blamed child-stealing of Indian children for the rise in Indian/settler conflict and the atrocities that followed.[19]

A second instigator of conflict was competition for resources. The new settlers killed deer in large numbers and cut off Yuki access to fields where they had gathered plants and hunted small game.[20][21][22] This threatened the Yuki with starvation, and at times Yuki men killed and ate grazing cattle to survive.[23] Many cattle and horses also wandered off and died of natural causes, but these deaths were also blamed on the Indians and used to build animosity towards them.[24] In fact, US Army Lieutenant Edward Dillon implicated California Superintendent of Indian Affairs Thomas Henley, current ranch owner and former California Supreme Court Judge Serranus Clinton Hastings, and Hastings's ranch manager H.L. Hall in a plot to build hatred towards the Indians by holding town-hall style public gatherings where settlers aired their grievances against them, real or imagined.[25] In this manner they would be able to create community buy-in to their campaign of atrocities which could then drive the Indians off the land and allow them to have the valley entirely to themselves.

Incidents

A band of 20–30 men, a significant portion of the several dozen White settlers occupying the valley at that time, committed a series of attacks against the Yuki Indians between 1856 and the summer of 1859.

One Round Valley settler, Dryden Lacock, testified to the California State Legislature that he regularly took part in expeditions that would kill 50-60 Indians in a trip, as often as two to three a week at times, from 1856 to 1860.[26] Settler William Scott testified before the legislature that H.L. Hall was a leader of vigilantes, killing all the Indians he could find whenever he encountered them and even poisoning their food and supplies.[27] Hall’s culpability was verified by Army Lieutenant Edward Dillon, who referred to Hall as a "monster" who killed men, women, and children, regardless of any crimes committed[28] and lamented that he had basically depopulated the county of Indians.[29][30] Hall, despite remaining silent as to the number of Indians he had killed, did admit under oath to executing Indian women, children, and even infants.[31]

Special Treasury Agent J. Ross Browne's account of the attacks is vivid:

"At [Round Valley], during the winter of 1858–‘59, more than a hundred and fifty peaceable Indians, including women and children, were cruelly slaughtered by the whites who had settled there under official authority. ... Armed parties went into the rancherias in open day, when no evil was apprehended, and shot the Indians down—weak, harmless, and defenseless as they were—without distinction of age or sex; shot down women with sucking babes at their breasts; killed or crippled the naked children that were running about."[32]

As early as September 1857, Superintendent Henley had stated that the campaign against the Yuki would continue until they were either exterminated or driven from the area entirely.[33] Special Treasury agent J. Ross Browne in September 1858 called it a "war of extermination" against the Yuki with 20–30 armed White men engaging in months of constant attacks.[34] By August 1859, after three years of a sustained campaign of atrocities, the Sacramento Union wrote that the local Indians appeared doomed to extirpation.[35]
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These estimates suggest well over 1,000 Yuki deaths at the hands of White settlers. (See Cook, Sherburne; "The California Indian and White Civilization" Part III, pg 7, for an argument in favor of the approximate reliability of figures of Indians killed at this time.) The White settler John Burgess testified that 10–15 Indians were killed for every beef that had been killed.[49] Lieutenant Edward Dillon stated that many crimes were unknown as settlers "will not testify against each other, and in most cases of this nature, Indians are the only witnesses."[50] Yuki Indian depositions were taken during the investigation of the murders by the California legislature in 1860, but all of these depositions have either been lost or destroyed.[51]

Little retaliation or defense was possible from the Yuki. On 24 September 1857, over three years after the first massacre of Indians in Round Valley, Indian Agent Geiger reported that a White man had been killed by a Yuki for the first time.[15] Another White man was killed in early 1858,[52] and by the end of 1858 a total of four White men had been killed.[53] Reports from the US Army suggest that at least two of the men killed were well known for grievous crimes against the Indians and that the Indians had been provoked in both instances.[54]
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a state militia captain F. F. Flint was deputized to investigate, but Flint advocated for killing the Yuki rather than protecting them.[64]
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Jarboe's War

In July 1859, a White settler named Walter S. Jarboe, already known for his brutal killings, formed an organized army of forty mercenaries to destroy the Round Valley Indians. He sought approval and payment from the state of California, and received an official appointment to kill Indians from the governor himself.[67] With state government support Jarboe launched a new, organized campaign of atrocities on the valley, known as "Jarboe's War" or the "Mendocino War" by the settlers. In the middle of his campaign, Jarboe declared to the governor, "However cruel it may be ... nothing short of extermination will suffice to rid the Country of them [the Yuki]."[68] Within six months Jarboe's mercenaries had killed 283 "warriors" in 23 attacks, along with hundreds of women and children as well, and captured nearly 300 Yuki Indians to be relocated to reservations.[69] (See Mendocino War)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mendocino_War

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Hastings had grown tired of waiting, and created a new company anyway, without federal funding, with Jarboe as captain. The company was often referred to as the Eel River Rangers, and Hastings and Henley promised to provide the funding (they later went back on this promise, forcing the state to pay for Jarboe and his men).[25] From July 1859 to January 1860, Jarboe and his men ravaged native lands and massacred many natives. Claiming that the natives were guilty of theft and violence, Jarboe and his men engaged in an "ethnic cleansing genocide".[26] Trying to justify his actions, Jarboe and his men used carcasses from plundered villages to try to give evidence for native thievery. It was a shoot-first, ask-questions-later approach that gave Jarboe and his men the powers of "judge, jury, and executioner".[27]
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Some settlers also decided to assist in this cause, with ranchers leading attacks and raiding parties of their own. In one 22-day period, 40 ranchers killed at least 150 natives.[29]  Finally, on January 3, 1860, Governor Weller disbanded Jarboe's group.[32] The public swiftly opposed this decision, petitioning Governor Weller to reinstate the Eel River Rangers, but the protest was unsuccessful.[33]

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the Legislature generally took the route of Rep. Lamar in blaming the Indians for the conflict. Rep. Lamar helped to push through legislation broadening the Indians eligible to be forcibly enslaved by White settlers.
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California legislators indeed continued state support for the ongoing slaughter. On 12 April 1860, legislators appropriated $9,347.39 for "payment of the indebtedness incurred by the expedition against the Indians in the county of Mendocino."[76] They also passed a law expanding the age and condition of Indians available for forced slavery.

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In 1861 the editor of the Mendocino Herald visited Round Valley and declared that there were no more than five or six hundred Yuki Indians left, out of an original population that had been more than ten times larger only five years earlier.[78]

NEVER FORGIVE. NEVER FORGET.

Credit where credit is due:

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A company-sized deployment of federal soldiers finally stopped the violence against the Indians in 1862.[79] The law allowing the kidnapping and enslavement of Indians was revoked in 1863.[80]

https://trueleft.createaforum.com/colonial-era/abraham-lincoln/

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Re: How did the English Colonize America?
« Reply #9 on: November 11, 2022, 06:46:02 pm »
https://www.yahoo.com/lifestyle/bloody-brutal-reality-english-frontier-112552747.html

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The bloody, brutal reality of The English’s frontier: ‘There were spasms of extraordinary violence’
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In the show, “the English” doesn’t just mean the English. Rather, it’s a catch-all term for Europeans settling in the West (defined as anywhere west of the Mississippi River). Though the posho English settlers do play cricket at one point. “I’ve never seen anyone play cricket in a Western!” laughs Garrett-Davis.

It’s true that English aristocracy journeyed to the West as part of a Victorian fascination with Frontier America. In the series, Tom Hughes plays Thomas Trafford, a naïve, terrible-with-money milksop who’s shipped off to Wyoming to oversee business in the open range cattle industry. Trafford represents a point of historical fact: English aristocrats buying into the booming cattle business and sending younger sons to the West to keep them occupied (though the beef boom soon bottomed out). Like the cricketers in The English, they also brought Englishmen’s games to the prairies: they played tennis and set up a steeplechase course.
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The English is a reckoning with the destruction, dispossession, and displacement of the Native peoples. In the series, one Wyoming town – one of those half-finished towns you see in most Westerns – is quite literally built on dead Native Americans.

The 1890 setting is also significant for being the year of the Wounded Knee Massacre. At Wounded Knee Creek, South Dakota, on December 29, 1890, members of the 7th Cavalry Regiment killed 300 men, women, and children from the Lakota people.
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It was also ultimately a massacre of a religious movement, the Ghost Dance, which had swept through the Native peoples. The Ghost Dance was a circular, ceremonial dance that arose in response to the Natives’ treatment at the hands of whites – a spiritual call to return dead Indians, oust the white man, and restore their lands. White Americans were alarmed – some said the Ghost Dance was a prelude to attack. The “Ghost Dancers” are referenced in The English. “Dancing Indians? That’s something to be afraid of?” says Emily Blunt’s Cornelia. “It is when they stop,” responds Ciarán Hinds’ oddball baddie.
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Native people are forced to the edges of the white man’s world: hunted down or beaten for wandering into the wrong territory; or forced into servitude. “You wanna survive in a white man’s world, you have to become one,” says one character. “Simple as that.”

“The army’s stated goal by the late 19th Century is to get Native people on reservations – to clear land for white Americans for the range cattle industry,” says Graybill. “Ultimately, this job was left more to missionaries than the federal government, to ‘missionize’ and ‘civilise’ Native peoples – to force them to assimilate. That’s the real goal.”
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the influx of white Americans looking to displace Native peoples from their land, also opening up territory for ranching and mining, does cause a lot of violence between US Federal troops and Native peoples. The high watermark of that is the Sand Creek Massacre in 1864 [in which 230 from Cheyenne and Arapaho peoples were slaughtered]. There were spasms of extraordinary violence against Native peoples up until 1890.
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Violence between Frontier Americans has been mythologised in sheriff vs outlaw quick-fire shootouts.
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Graybill references the historian Robert R Dykstra. “He spent a lot of time convincingly debunking the idea that these towns were just infused with violence,” says Graybill. “Maybe because of the relatively thin populations, these murder rates per capita seemed high. But in terms of gross overall numbers, really not so much.”

The real violence, says Graybill, was between federal troops or settlers and Native peoples.

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Re: How did the English Colonize America?
« Reply #10 on: November 28, 2022, 08:51:52 pm »
https://www.yahoo.com/news/day-history-230-cheyenne-arapaho-023602392.html

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THIS DAY IN HISTORY: Monday, November 29, 2022, is the anniversary of the Sand Creek Massacre, where approximately 230 Cheyenne & Arapaho were killed at the hands of 675 U.S. soldiers, known as the Colorado territory militia.

Among the dead on November 29, 1864 were at least 105 women, children and elders.

The soldiers were commanded by Colonel John M. Chivington to attack a village of about 750 Cheyenne and Arapaho along the Sand Creek River in Colorado.
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The Treaty of Fort Laramie in 1851 had given the American Indians extensive territory, but the Pikes Peak gold rush in 1858 and other factors had persuaded the U.S. to renegotiate the terms of the treaty. In 1861, the Treaty of Fort Wise was signed by Southern Cheyenne and Arapaho chiefs.

The treaty took from the Southern Cheyenne and Arapaho much of the land given to them by the earlier treaty, reducing the size of their reservation to about 1/13th of the original amount.
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“We will never forget the hundreds of lives that were brutally taken here — men, women and children murdered in an unprovoked attack,” Haaland said in a written statement. “Stories like the Sand Creek Massacre are not easy to tell but it is my duty — our duty — to ensure that they are told.”

In a long overdue gesture, Colorado Gov. Jared Polis (D) in August 2021 signed an Executive Order rescinding a pair of 19th century proclamations that granted the right to kill American Indians. Polis called the two proclamations, which set the stage for the Sand Creek Massacre, "shameful."

On the Sand Creek Massacre Foundation’s website, they say: “The Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site is the place where their spirits reside, where we come to learn, to remember, to heal, and to make sure such atrocities never happen again.”

This requires eliminating the bloodlines of those who perpetrated it the first time.

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Why The Gold Rush Is One Of The Darkest Moments In US History | Whitewashed
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Beneath the promise of gold in California in the late 1840s and early 1850s, white settlers were well armed and prepared to kill Native Americans who lived there. These violent attacks against Native Americans were often supported and funded by the state's newly created government. To uncover more details about the gold rush, we spoke with Jayden Lim and Nicole Myers-Lim of the California Indian Museum and Benjamin Madley, author of "An American Genocide."
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n2bpBAXvJew