Author Topic: Venezuela  (Read 137 times)

90sRetroFan

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Venezuela
« on: March 19, 2021, 01:09:18 am »
OLD CONTENT

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Venezuela

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Pre-Columbian Venezuela had an estimated population of one million.[2] In addition to indigenous peoples known today, the population included historic groups such as the Kalina (Caribs), Auaké, Caquetio, Mariche, and Timoto-Cuicas. The Timoto-Cuica culture was the most complex society in Pre-Columbian Venezuela; with pre-planned permanent villages, surrounded by irrigated, terraced fields. They also stored water in tanks.[3] Their houses were made primarily of stone and wood with thatched roofs. They were peaceful, for the most part, and depended on growing crops. Regional crops included potatoes and ullucos.[4] They left behind works of art, particularly anthropomorphic ceramics, but no major monuments. They spun vegetable fibers to weave into textiles and mats for housing. They are credited with having invented the arepa, a staple of Venezuelan cuisine.[5]
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Christopher Columbus sailed along the eastern coast of Venezuela on his third voyage in 1498, the only one of his four voyages to reach the South American mainland. This expedition discovered the so-called "Pearl Islands" of Cubagua and Margarita off the northeastern coast of Venezuela. Later Spanish expeditions returned to exploit these islands' once abundant pearl oysters, enslaving the indigenous people of the islands and harvesting the pearls so intensively that they became one of the most valuable resources of the incipient Spanish Empire in the Americas between 1508 and 1531, by which time both the local indigenous population and the pearl oysters had become devastated.
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By the middle of the 16th century not many more than 2,000 Europeans lived in present-day Venezuela. The opening of gold mines at Yaracuy led to the introduction of slavery[when?], at first involving the indigenous population, then imported Africans. The first real economic success of the colony involved the raising of livestock, much helped by the grassy plains known as llanos.

Early resistance:

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guaicaipuro

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Guaicaipuro formed a powerful coalition of different tribes which he led during part of the 16th century against the Spanish conquest of Venezuelan territory in the central region of the country, specially in the Caracas valley.
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The Spaniards discovered gold in the area of the land of the Teques, and as they started to exploit the mines, Guaicaipuro attacked, forcing the Spanish to leave. Following the attack, the governor of the province of Venezuela sent Juan Rodríguez Suárez to pacify the area, which apparently he did after defeating Guaicaipuro in several engagements. Believing he had achieved his task, the Spanish commander and his soldiers left the area leaving behind miners and three of his sons. Once the Spanish soldiers had left, Guiacaipuro assaulted the mines killing all the workers as well as the sons of Rodríguez Suárez. Immediately thereafter, Rodríguez Suárez who was on his way to the city of Valencia, with a small contingent of only six soldiers, with the purpose of meeting Lope de Aguirre, another Spanish conquistador, was ambushed by Guaicaipuro and killed.

After these successes Guaicaipuro became the main and central figure in the uprising of all the native tribes in the vicinity of the Caracas valley, and managed to unite all the tribes under his command. In 1562 they defeated an expeditionary force led by Luis Narváez. Due to the fierce attacks, the Spanish retreated away from the area for several years.

In 1567 the city of Santiago de Leon de Caracas was founded in the Caracas valley. The Spanish worried about the nearby presence of Guaicaipuro and his men, and given his previous attacks, they decided not to wait for him to attack, and as a preventive move Diego de Losada, (founder of Caracas) ordered the mayor of the city, Francisco Infante to undertake Guacaipuro's capture. In 1568 Infante and his men were led by native guides to the hut where Guaicaipuro lived and they set it on fire to force the native cacique out. Guaicaipuro stormed out and found death at the hands of the Spanish soldiers.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tamanaco

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Tamanaco was a native Venezuelan chief, who as leader of the Mariches and Quiriquires tribes led (during part of the 16th century) the resistance against the Spanish conquest of Venezuelan territory in the central region of the country, specially in the Caracas valley.
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Following the death of Guaicaipuro, Tamanaco had risen as the new leader of the Mariches and Quiriquires. By 1573 Tamanaco and his group of natives had become such a problem that reinforcements came from Spain and other Spanish islands in the Caribbean with the sole purpose of taking care of this matter.

Soon after captain Pedro Alonso Galeas and lieutenant Francisco Calderón joined their forces, they started on an expedition with the intention of engaging Tamanaco and his men; they were helped by Aricabacuto, another native Chief. Upon learning of this expedition, Tamanaco prepared a fighting force made up of 300 warriors recruited among his tribes and with the help of men from the Teques and Arbaco tribes. It wasn't long before the two groups engaged each other in combat. However neither side came out victorious in their first fight.

Soon after Tamanaco decided to attack Caracas and pursue the Spanish soldiers who retreated to the banks of the river Guaire. The Spanish lost and their commanding officer captain Hernando de la Cerda died in the fighting. However, as the battle seemed to be ending with Tamanaco's victory, a Spanish cavalry detachment came and surrounded the natives.

Tamanaco was apprehended alive and sentenced to death by hanging. However, Garcí González de Silva, in charge of Caracas' city hall "did something". Among the discussion a captain named Mendoza suggested an alternative: he proposed to let Tamanaco chose between hanging or fighting a trained-killer mastin dog named "Friend," that Mendoza owned. All liked the idea and proposed it to Tamanaco. He accepted the challenge and is reported to have said "the dog will die by my hands and then these cruel men will know what Tamanaco is capable of" However, the fight was uneven and Tamanaco died of the injuries he suffered in his throat.

Moving on:

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In the 18th century, a second Venezuelan society formed along the coast with the establishment of cocoa plantations manned by much larger importations of African slaves. Quite a number of black slaves also worked in the haciendas of the grassy llanos.
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only the mantuanos (a Venezuelan name for the white Creole elite) had access to a solid education. (Another name for the mantuanos class, grandes cacaos, reflected the source of their wealth. To this day, in Venezuela the term can apply to a presumptuous person.) The mantuanos showed themselves presumptuous, overbearing, and zealous in affirming their privileges against the pardo (mixed-race) majority of the population.
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Although the new Junta of Caracas had self-appointed élite members who claimed to represent the pardos (free blacks and even slaves), the new government eventually faced the challenge of maintaining the alliance with the pardos. Given recent history these groups still had grievances against the mantuanos. A segment of the mantuanos (among them 27-year-old Simón Bolívar, the future Liberator) saw the setting up of the Junta as a step towards outright independence. On 5 July 1811, seven of the ten provinces of the Captaincy General of Venezuela declared their independence in the Venezuelan Declaration of Independence.

Later resistance:

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decree_of_War_to_the_Death

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The Decree of War to the Death, in Spanish Decreto de Guerra a Muerte, was a decree issued by the South American independentist leader, Simón Bolívar, which permitted murder and any atrocities whatsoever to be committed against civilians born in Spain (or the Canary Islands), other than those actively assisting South American independence, and furthermore exonerated Latin Americans who had already committed such murders and atrocities.

"All Spaniards who do not conspire against tyranny in favor of our just cause, using the most effective and active resources, will be considered enemies, and will be punished as traitors to the homeland, and therefore, will be promptly executed. On the other hand, a general and absolute pardon is issued to all Spaniards who pass into our army, with or without their weapons; to those who offer aid to the good citizens working hard to shake off the shackles of tyranny. War officers and magistrates that proclaim the government of Venezuela and join our cause will keep their destinies and work positions; in one word, all Spaniards who perform service for the State will be reputed and treated as Americans.

And you, Americans, who have been separated from the road of justice by error and perfidy, know that your brothers forgive you and seriously regret your misdeeds, intimately persuaded that you cannot be guilty, and that only the ignorance and blindness imposed on you by the authors of your crimes could cause you to perpetrate them. Do not fear the sword that comes to avenge you and cut the ignominious bindings which tie you to your executioners' fate. Rely on absolute immunity for your honor, life and properties; the mere title of Americans will be your warranty and safeguard. Our weapons have come to protect you, and will never be used against a single one of our brothers.

This amnesty extends to the very traitors who have most recently committed their acts of felony; and will be so religiously carried out that no reason, cause or pretext will be enough to make us break our offer, no matter how extraordinary the reasons you give us to excite our adversity.

Spaniards and Canarians, count on death, even if indifferent, if you do not actively work in favor of the independence of America. Americans, count on life, even if guilty."

While Bolivar was a Freemason, I am willing to give him benefit of doubt that he joined mostly out of ignorance, as he proved not to be as pro-democracy as they probably would have liked:

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simón_Bolívar#Personal_beliefs

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Bolívar differed, however, in political philosophy from the leaders of the revolution in the United States on two important matters. First of all, he was staunchly anti-slavery, despite coming from an area of Spanish America that relied heavily on slave labor. Second, while he was an admirer of U.S. independence, he did not believe that its governmental system could work in Latin America.[61] Thus, he claimed that the governance of heterogeneous societies like Venezuela "will require a firm hand".[62]

Bolívar felt that the U.S. had been established in land especially fertile for democracy. By contrast, he referred to Spanish America as having been subject to the "triple yoke of ignorance, tyranny, and vice".[6]:224 If a republic could be established in such a land, in his mind, it would have to make some concessions in terms of liberty. This is shown when Bolívar blamed the fall of the first republic on his subordinates trying to imitate "some ethereal republic" and in the process, not paying attention to the gritty political reality of South America.[63]
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The Bolivian constitution intended to establish a lifelong presidency and a hereditary senate

Admittedly, he was no ideological anti-democrat (as he believed democracy for the US), but at least his vision for his own country was not democracy, instead emphasizing anti-racist American folkism. Unfortunately, leaders who came after did not take this Americanism to heart:

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Venezuela_(1830%E2%80%931908)

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Following the Venezuelan War of Independence (part of the Spanish American wars of independence), Venezuela initially won independence from the Spanish Empire as part of Gran Colombia. Internal tensions led to the dissolution of Gran Colombia in 1830/31, with Venezuela declaring independence in 1831.
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In terms of social organization, Venezuela had inherited the colonial distinctions between the minority ruling whites, the majority un-enfranchised pardos, and the slaves.
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One cannot regard Venezuela as stable during this period: at least thirty insurrections occurred, albeit most of them unsuccessful. The usual pattern was that some local, usually white, caudillo would "recruit" an "army" of 100 or more pardos and make a pompous "revolutionary" proclamation. If this caudillo had some measure of charisma, he could put other caudillos on his side and, with the other recruited pardos, march on Caracas. If he succeeded in seizing poqwer, his continued success depended on his getting other caudillos to put down the minor insurrections that cropped up here and there against him. There were other features of note. In Venezuela, as if the caudillos had a tacit understanding among themselves, there were no political executions with but one minor(?) exception. All a significant caudillo had to fear from failure was either jail, usually for a short term, or exile. However, these privileges did not extend to the pardos, who were easy to recruit, easy to punish, and easy to forget once a caudillo was in power.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Venezuela_(1908–1958)

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Gómez took power in a very poor illiterate country. The white/pardos social divide was still very much in place. When Gómez died in his bed in 1935, Venezuela was still a poor illiterate country and if anything the social stratification had been accentuated. The population had grown from perhaps one million and a half to two million. Malaria was the greatest killer. Gómez himself probably had Amerindian ancestry, but he was overtly racist and he was much influenced by a historian, Laureano Vallenilla Lanz, who published a book claiming not inaccurately that the Venezuelan War of Independence was really a civil war with the dubious added argument that pardos were a menace to public order and Venezuela could only subsist as a nation ruled by white strongmen.[6] Gómez, for instance, prohibited all immigration from black Caribbean islands. Even though Venezuela's population in his time was 80% pardo, passports, which were first issued under Gómez, identified carriers by the color of skin, which they still did until the 1980s.

NEVER FORGIVE. NEVER FORGET.

Only very recently was there improvement:

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Amidst the new policy started by former president Hugo Chávez of re-assessing and valuing the role of Venezuela's Caciques and indigenous peoples in a historical narrative which has traditionally given greater prominence to the Spanish conquistadores, Guaicaipuro's remains were symbolically moved (his remains have never been found) under ceremonial pomp to the national pantheon on December 8, 2001.

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In recent years the former president of Venezuela, deceased Hugo Chávez, has often mentioned Tamanaco and other native chiefs in his speeches with the purpose of inspiring Venezuelans to resist what he calls American imperialists and interventionists policies directed towards Venezuela. Most notably he does it every year during the 12 October holiday, which after being renamed several years ago Dia de la Raza (previously America's Discovery day), was recently renamed as Día de la Resistencia Indígena (Day of Indigenous Resistance).

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90sRetroFan

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Re: Venezuela
« Reply #1 on: August 11, 2022, 08:13:53 pm »
Our enemies' perspective:

https://vdare.com/articles/yes-virginia-dare-the-great-replacement-triggered-venezuela-s-decline

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Now most of the educated whites have left the country, and it will never return to white rule.
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Of course, Venezuela has been a mixed-race country from day one, and was periodically politically unstable until the 20th century when it modernized and oil was discovered. But Venezuela’s pragmatic immigration policy that attracted Europeans played the most significant role in the country’s prosperity. People are policy, not oil.

From the late-19th into the 20th centuries, large numbers of immigrants from Italy, Portugal, and Spain emigrated, quickly integrated into Venezuelan society and formed a part of the country’s burgeoning middle class:

In 1870, Antonio Guzmin Blanco became president of Venezuela and exercised power, directly or indirectly, until 1888. The country became relatively pacified and economically prosperous. Guzmin was a fervent believer in the utility of immigration. A new law was promulgated in 1874 and the government took an active role in fomenting and subsidizing immigration. Private individuals made contracts with the government to bring in groups of immigrants who were given free passage and housing until they were able to obtain work. Nearly 15,000 arrived between 1874 and 1877 and another 9,000 between 1881 and 1884. Between 1874 and 1888 a total of 26,090 immigrants arrived, of whom 20,544 were Spaniards. … The second most numerous group were 2,764 Italians.
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Thanks to this European immigration, by the 1960s, Venezuela became Latin America’s most prosperous country, with a standard of living comparable to that of southern Europe. Venezuelans of European origin figured prominently in the nation’s success story.
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Though Venezuela was headed downhill before Chávez took over, with two failed coup attempts and a nasty bout of inflation in the 1990s [A History of Venezuelan Inflation, by José Nińo, Mises Institute, December 7, 2018], under his rule from 1999 through 2013, the decline accelerated. Chávez put socialism and corruption into overdrive. He pursued aggressive confiscatory policies against enemies of the regime, who were usually part of the country’s white European upper crust.
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Chávez of course was partly black and indigenous, so he put the country’s black and indigenous people on a pedestal while diminishing the accomplishments of white Venezuelans.

In 2002, Chávez grabbed the brass ring of anti-European public policy. He abolished Columbus Day, which was called Día de la Raza, and created the Day of Indigenous Resistance, Día de la Resistencia Indígena, to celebrate indigenous people’s struggle against European settlers. Chávez repeatedly used the occasion to “redistribute” land [Venezuela: Land returned on Indigenous Resistance Day, CulturalSurvival.org]. Such was the mania for indigenous pride that protestors tore down a statue of Christopher Columbus in Caracas and hanged it:

Protestors used thick yellow climbing ropes to bring down the 100 year old statue of Columbus and dragged the remains through downtown Caracas and towards the Teresa Carreńo theatre, where hundreds of indigenous people presented their cultural songs and dance to each other and other supporters commemorating October 12. The protestors intended to ask indigenous people to bring Columbus to trial after 512 years.
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Scrapping Columbus Day represented Venezuela’s definitive departure from its European heritage.
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Latin American elites knew and publicly recognized that Europeans represented the pinnacle of human achievement. If Latin America wanted to advance, most prominent leaders in the 19th century understood, then importing Europeans was the way to do it.

For example, Argentine diplomat and classical liberal theorist Juan Bautista Alberdi believed Argentina had to import Europeans en masse to become a civilized nation.
His most famous expression was “to govern is to populate.” His work largely influenced the Argentine constitution of 1853. Article 25 promotes European migration:
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Alberdi’s sentiments about Europeans were typical. Governments actively encouraged white immigration to accelerate blanqueamiento (whitening).
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The lesson for Venezuela, as it is for the United States, is this: Demography is destiny.

Related:

https://trueleft.createaforum.com/colonial-era/colonialism-as-viewed-by-westerners/

https://trueleft.createaforum.com/true-left-vs-right/homo-hubris/

Chavez's woke response:





« Last Edit: August 11, 2022, 08:20:45 pm by 90sRetroFan »

guest30

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Re: Venezuela
« Reply #2 on: August 13, 2022, 09:51:27 am »
@90sRetroFan

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...For example, Argentine diplomat and classical liberal theorist Juan Bautista Alberdi believed Argentina had to import Europeans en masse to become a civilized nation. His most famous expression was “to govern is to populate.” His work largely influenced the Argentine constitution of 1853. Article 25 promotes European migration:
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Alberdi’s sentiments about Europeans were typical. Governments actively encouraged white immigration to accelerate blanqueamiento (whitening).

Encourage "white" immigration promoting their industrialist and gentrification behaviour which resulting capitalist and liberal way of life. So importing them are resulting national degeneration. They must to be indoctrinated with anti-Western ideology first before live and enter to every of the homeland which they want to live.