True Left

History => Colonial Era => Topic started by: guest5 on November 14, 2020, 05:55:04 pm


Title: Russia, the Last Colonial Empire
Post by: guest5 on November 14, 2020, 05:55:04 pm
Russia, the Last Colonial Empire
Quote
Russia should be counted among the European colonial empires—and as the only one left standing. That’s the key to comprehending its future.
https://www.the-american-interest.com/2017/06/29/russia-last-colonial-empire/

Empire of the steppe: Russia's colonial experience on the Eurasian frontier
Quote
Historian Michael Khodarkovsky offered insight into Russia's colonial rule in the Eurasian steppe and its implications for the current crisis in Ukraine during a Eurasian Empires and Central Asian Peoples seminar.
Quote
“In many ways,” Khodarkovsky contended, “Russia continues to be an ‘Empire of the Steppe’: an empire that is bitter about losing in 1991 what it considers its territories, and is now trying to restore under the slogan of the Eurasian Union."
Quote
Continental or colonial?

Russia is a colonial empire that has “persistently denied its colonial nature,” Khodarkovsky explained. He noted that in the mid-16th century, while Spain and Portugal were exploring and conquering the New World, Russia was embarking on its own imperialistic mission along the soft borders of the steppe, a huge swathe of land that runs roughly from Eastern Europe in the west through Central Asia to Mongolia and China in the east.

Both Russian and foreign scholars have frequently disagreed about whether Russia’s policies in the Caucasus, Central Asia, Siberia and Asia can be considered colonial. Many scholars contend that Russia cannot be classified as a colonial empire because it expanded only within its own continent. Khodarkovsky, however, argued that Russia should be conceptualized as a “hybrid empire” because its expansion was both continental and colonial in nature.

While comparisons between Russia and the West are inevitable, Khodarkovsky claimed that traditional Russian scholars and policy makers have been quick to differentiate the Russian experience in the steppe and Western colonialism in non-European states. “Similarities with the West were welcome,” he observed, “as long as they confirmed Russia’s equal greatness.”

Traditionally, Russia has maintained that it came together as a country through peaceful and voluntary unification, instead of the violent means employed by European empires.

Unlike Europe’s colonization of the New World, which resulted in bloody wars of independence and ultimately the expulsion of Spain, Portugal, France, and England from the Americas, many Russian historians have argued that Russia’s control of conquered territory resulted from a policy of “unite and rule.” These nuanced differences, said Khodarkovsky, give Russia grounds to deny the country’s imperialistic tendencies.

The speaker argued that Russian history can indeed be classified as an imperial if one defines the main characteristic of colonialism as an unbalanced relationship between Christian conquerors and the non-Christian subjects of their civilizing mission. He added that the Russian empire was adept at using local elites in the lands it conquered to promote its imperial agenda long before the British attempted to do the same in India.

Although Russia refused to define its own expansion as colonial, Khodarkovsky said it learned from, expanded upon and sometimes imitated the colonial experiences of its European counterparts. And although the USSR initially identified Russia as an imperial power, this criticism was soon muted.
https://www.international.ucla.edu/euro/article/139315

See also: https://trueleft.createaforum.com/enemies/duginism/
Title: Re: Russia, the Last Colonial Empire
Post by: 90sRetroFan on November 14, 2020, 10:27:23 pm
See also:

https://trueleft.createaforum.com/colonial-era/alaska/

https://trueleft.createaforum.com/colonial-era/sakhalin/
Title: Re: Russia, the Last Colonial Empire
Post by: 90sRetroFan on March 27, 2021, 11:42:14 pm
For reference:

(https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9c/Russia_1533-1896.gif/800px-Russia_1533-1896.gif)

NEVER FORGIVE. NEVER FORGET.

(https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/proxy/8BK5l_0MLei3WNmJRf2wxOh44-8ELZv6gG1SDMkzuk3A1s2x8nduRa3XBPo1ZE8tUE_j22NrpPaXyQBRk3iExNZGZ_fLrC8LiIgx6pu8qp6nmcRMYq0)
Title: Re: Russia, the Last Colonial Empire
Post by: 90sRetroFan on July 22, 2021, 09:52:59 pm
To elaborate on the point posted here:

https://trueleft.createaforum.com/questions-debates/aryanism's-hostility-towards-russia-and-eastern-european-people/msg7650/#msg7650

Quote
"absorbing people of conquered territories to be part of Russian people"

Like this?

https://trueleft.createaforum.com/colonial-era/sakhalin/

   
Quote
In October 1946 the Soviets began to repatriate all remaining Japanese.[citation needed] By 1950 most had been sent, willing or not, to Hokkaidō, though they had to leave all of their possessions behind, including any currency they had, Russian or Japanese.

Or like this?

https://trueleft.createaforum.com/colonial-era/alaska/

   
Quote
the Russian promyshlenniki forced the Aleuts to do the work for them, often by taking hostage family-members in exchange for hunted seal-furs.[5] This pattern of colonial exploitation resembled some of the Russian promyshlenniki practices in their expansion into Siberia and the Russian Far East.[6] As word spread of the potential riches in furs, competition among Russian companies increased and the Aleuts were enslaved.
    ...
    Hostages were taken, families were split up, and individuals were forced to leave their villages and settle elsewhere.
    ...
     As the Shelekhov-Golikov Company of 1783-1799 developed a monopoly, its use of skirmishes and violent incidents turned into systematic violence as a tool of colonial exploitation of the indigenous people.

Or like this?

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forced_settlements_in_the_Soviet_Union#Iranians_and_Assyrians

   
Quote
in 1950 all Iranians, with the exception of persons of Armenian ethnicity, were resettled from Georgia, a population of some 4,776 persons, and in the same year thousands of Christian ethnic Assyrians were deported from Armenia and Georgia to Kazakhstan.[7]

Or like this?

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_racism_in_Russia#Effects_on_Indigenous_groups_in_Russia

   
Quote
The dispossession of Indigenous peoples from their lands throughout Russia for natural resource extraction has a long historical context of racism.[3]:44 According to Indigenous studies scholar Aileen Espiritu, "As non-European peoples, the Khanty, Mansi and Yamalo-Nenets were seen as inferior races by the Russians, and were therefore exploited for their goods and resources.

Or like this?

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deportation_of_Chinese_in_the_Soviet_Union

   
Quote
By the 1940s, Chinese had become almost extinct in the Russian Far East, although there were more than 200 thousands Chinese before the October Revolution in 1921.[1][2] The detailed history of how the Chinese became distinct still needs to be uncovered and deciphered from the Soviet records.[2] As local East Asians were forced to leave, Europeans were also forced to migrate to the Far East from Europe and Siberia, and eventually became dominant in the local population.[3]

"you just making it up to vilify Russia"

Jews say I am just making it up to vilify Israel. I don't take them seriously either.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deportation_of_Chinese_in_the_Soviet_Union

Quote
By the 1940s, Chinese had become almost extinct in the Russian Far East, although there were more than 200 thousands Chinese before the October Revolution in 1921.[1][2] The detailed history of how the Chinese became distinct still needs to be uncovered and deciphered from the Soviet records.[2] As local East Asians were forced to leave, Europeans were also forced to migrate to the Far East from Europe and Siberia, and eventually became dominant in the local population.[3]
...
In the Russian Far East, the repression against ethnic Chinese began early before the Great Purge. As the October Revolution evoked the Russian Civil War, ethnic Chinese were discriminated against and repressed by multiple parties in the war. According to Chinese diplomatic documents, ethnic Chinese (including civilians) who were captured by the White Army were executed and their bodies displayed in public as an act of intimidation. Chinese males were often rounded up and summarily executed by being shot or bayoneted. The Red Army was arguably even worse. Undisciplined Red Army soldiers looted and burned ethnic Chinese villages and towns, raping women, killing at random, imprisoning and torturing military aged males and interning women/children.
...
When the Chinese were leaving the Soviet Union, they would need to pay an extra 14-ruble outbound fee and to be checked nakedly. Remittance of the Chinese was restricted. Extra taxation, including that of business license, business, income, profits, private debts, docks, poverty, school, etc., was assigned to the Chinese and their properties.
...
In 1926, People's Commissariat for Foreign Affairs resolved to use any means to stop Chinese and Koreans migrating into Soviet territory, as they were regarded to cause danger to the Soviet Union. Koreans began to be relocated from the Far East, while measures were taken to "squeeze out" the Chinese from the border area.[12]:116–117

In 1928, Arsenyev Mikhail Mikhailovich (Арсеньев Михаил Михайлович), Staff Colonel of Red Army Headquarter, submitted a report to Far Eastern Commission, advising that free migration from China and Korea in the areas bordering the countries should be stopped and that the area should be filled with migrants from Siberia and Europe instead.[2][12]
...
When they were to leave Russia, any Chinese to cross the border with more than 30 rubles in cash will need to pay the surplus to the authority. 1,000 rubles in cash to cross the border would make them arrested, with all the money confiscated.[19]:30

The Chinese were massively detained according to the Shanghai-based newspaper Shen Bao. on 24 July 1929, the newspaper said, "around a thousand Chinese who lived in Vladivostok were detained by the Soviet authority. They were all said to be bourgeoisie."[22] On 12 August, the newspaper stated that there were still 1,600-1,700 Chinese in jail in Vladivostok, and that each of them was provided with a piece of rye bread daily and underwent various tortures.[23] On 26 August, the newspaper continued that the detained Chinese in Khabarovsk only had a bread soup for meal daily, among which a lot of people had hanged them due to unbearable starvation.[24] On 14 September, the newspaper stated that another thousand of Chinese in Vladivostok were arrested, with almost no Chinese remaining in the city.[25] On 15 September, the newspaper continued that Vladivostok had arrested more than 1,000 Chinese during 8 and 9 September and that there were estimated to be more than 7,000 Chinese in jail in the city.[26] On 21 September, the newspaper said, "the Government in the Russian Far East cheated the arrested Chinese, and forced them to construct the railway between Heihe and Khabarovsk. The forced workers only had two pieces of rye bread to eat daily. If they worked with any delay, they would be whipped, making them at the edge of living and dead."[27][19]:31
...
On 10 November, the Republic of China Consulate in Chita reported to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs that the Soviet was migrating 30,000 Europeans to Siberia and the Far East monthly to strengthen defence and economic construction in the region, and that to save space for the European migrants and to avoid Chinese or Korean collusion with Japan and Manchukuo, the policy to remove Koreans and Chinese was enforced.[30]
...
Millionka, where there lived populous Chinese, was once destroyed in 1936 and rebuilt by Chinese migrants. On that night, shootouts broke out in the neighborhood, killing 7 Soviets and 434 Chinese.[33]:174 The Soviet Government spent 7 months to reconstruct the whole neighborhood after the conflict. Russian historian Oleg Khlevnyuk describes the night as "a racial massacre based on narrow Russian nationalism in the name of socialism".[33]:175 Corpses of the Chinese victims in Millionka were re-discovered on 8 June 2010.[36]

On 29 December, Primorsky Krai launched a purge against the Chinese, leading to 853 arrests according to the Krai Governmental records.[37] The Republic of China consulates in Khabarovsk and Blagoveshchensk reported more than 200 and 100 Chinese arrested respectively.[7] During 12–13 January 1938, another 20 and more Chinese were reportedly arrested in Blagoveshchensk.[7]
...
On 14th, the Chinese Consulate in Vladivostok reported to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, "the Soviet robbed everything, especially money and possessions; if they are hidden somewhere, the Chinese would be extorted by tortures, numerous people killed by such detention, which was miserable and harsh to an extreme."[41] On 17th, the Chinese Consulate in Khabarovsk protested against the tortures during interrogation, calling for Soviet release of the Chinese. On 19th, the Central Daily News again protested against the Soviet abuse of the Chinese.[42] On 21st, Hong Kong-based Kung Sheung Daily News re-posted a Japanese coverage of the Soviet brutality against the Chinese, to express its outrage against the deeds of the Soviet Union.[43] On 22nd, the Chinese Consulate in Khabarovsk reported another hundred of innocent Chinese arrested during the previous night by NKVD and that it was heard previously arrested Chinese were forced to work in those remote, cold areas.[44] On 2 March, the Chinese Consulate in Vladivostok reported, "the Soviet authority searched for the Chinese day and night, arresting the Chinese even when they were at work. The Soviet was so aggressive that there was no space for any concession. The deeds were as brutal as the exclusion of China in 1900, during which many were drowned in the Heilongjiang River. Recalling the miserable history makes people tremble with fear."[45]

After times of massive arrests, there were only more than a thousand Chinese in Vladivostok. The Soviet authority stopped the search and arrest for a month. After the Chinese sheltered by the Chinese Consulate all left the consulate, the Soviet authority restarted to search and seize the Chinese. As the Soviet had established tremendous checkpoints around the Chinese Consulate, the Chinese were unable to return to the consulate for help, which made almost all the Chinese in Vladivostok arrested.[46][47] The second and third massive search-and-seizure operation arrested 2,005 and 3,082 Chinese respectively. On 7 May, the Chinese Consulate in Vladivostok reported 7 to 8 thousand Chinese in total under detention. Local prisons were filled by the Chinese, which, added by tortures during interrogation, often caused deaths.[48]

And it wasn't just a Soviet practice either. Earlier:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1900_Amur_anti-Chinese_pogroms

Quote
Sixty-Four Villages East of the River

Lieutenant-General Konstantin Nikolaevich Gribskiy ordered the expulsion of all Qing subjects who remained north of the river.[4] This included the residents of the villages, and Chinese traders and workers who lived in Blagoveshchensk proper, where they numbered anywhere between one-sixth and one-half of the local population of 30,000.[4][5] They were taken by the local police and driven into the river to be drowned. Those who could swim were shot by the Russian forces.[6]

NEVER FORGIVE. NEVER FORGET.
Title: Re: Duginism
Post by: Dazhbog on September 03, 2021, 06:24:25 am
Daily reminder that Duginism is not merely a recent phenomenon:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russo-Japanese_War#Pre-war_negotiations

Quote
The 1890s and 1900s marked the height of the "Yellow Peril" propaganda by the German government, and the German Emperor Wilhelm II (r. 1888–1918) often wrote letters to his cousin Emperor Nicholas II of Russia, praising him as the "saviour of the white race" and urging Russia forward in Asia.

Nowadays, this label is applied to Putin.

Quote
From November 1894 onward, Wilhelm had been writing letters praising Nicholas as Europe's defender from the "Yellow Peril", assuring the Tsar that God Himself had "chosen" Russia to defend Europe from the alleged Asian threat.

Nowadays, WNs praise Russia (as well as other Turandom-countries) as "defenders" against the "Islamic threat".

Then there is this:

Quote
Wilhelm had written to Nicholas stating that the question of Russian interests in Manchuria and Korea was beside the point, saying instead it was a matter of Russia "undertaking the protection and defence of the White Race, and with it, Christian civilization, against the Yellow Race. And whatever the Japs are determined to ensure the domination of the Yellow Race in East Asia, to put themselves at its head and organise and lead it into battle against the White Race. That is the kernel of the situation, and therefore there can be very little doubt about where the sympathies of all half-way intelligent Europeans should lie. England betrayed Europe's interests to America in a cowardly and shameful way over the Panama Canal question, so as to be left in 'peace' by the Yankees. Will the 'Tsar' likewise betray the interests of the White Race to the Yellow as to be 'left in peace' and not embarrass the Hague tribunal too much?"

Nowadays, WNs (contrary to Hitler) increasingly engage in the same kind of anglophobia, which also forms their common factor with non-"white" Duginists like kameradbaren:

https://knowyourmeme.com/memes/the-eternal-anglo

(https://i.kym-cdn.com/photos/images/original/001/649/009/8d7.jpeg)

(In addition, note how the subtitle below the "Eternal Anglo" uses a typeface typically found in video games from the counterculture era, whereas the subtitle below the "White Europeans" uses a blackletter typeface banned by National Socialist Germany in 1941!)

Of course, just like nowadays WN-ism, the sentiments expressed by colonial era-Germany's ridiculous "Kaiser" also had their echo within Russia itself:

Quote
Nicholas held the Japanese in contempt as "yellow monkeys", and he took for granted that the Japanese would simply yield in the face of Russia's superior power, which thus explains his unwillingness to compromise.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vladimir_Solovyov_(philosopher)#Life_and_work

Quote
Solovyov's attempts to chart a course of civilization's progress toward an East-West Christian ecumenicism developed an increasing bias against Asian cultures which he initially studied with great interest.

...

Solovyov spent his final years obsessed with fear of the "Yellow Peril", warning that soon the Asian peoples, especially the Chinese, would invade and destroy Russia. Solovyov further elaborated in his apocalyptic short story "Tale of the Antichrist" published in the Nedelya newspaper on February 27, 1900, in which China and Japan join forces to conquer Russia. His 1894 poem Pan-Mongolism, whose opening lines serve as epigraph to the story, was widely seen as predicting the coming Russo-Japanese War.

So when will China and Japan finally join forces and realize Solovyov's vision?

Also worthy of note:

Quote
He dismissed the Buddhist concept of Nirvana as a pessimistic nihilistic "nothingness" which was antithetical to salvation, no better than Gnostic dualism.

Quote
As an active member of Society for the Promotion of Culture Among the Jews of Russia, he spoke Hebrew and struggled to reconcile Judaism and Christianity. Politically, he became renowned as the leading defender of Jewish civil rights in tsarist Russia in the 1880s. Solovyov also advocated for his cause internationally and published a letter in The London Times pleading for international support for his struggle. The Jewish Encyclopedia describes him as "a friend of the Jews" and states that "Even on his death-bed he is said to have prayed for the Jewish people".

The link between Duginism, anti-Gnosticism and Judeo-Christianity laid bare in one person!
Title: Re: Re: Duginism
Post by: guest55 on September 03, 2021, 04:10:10 pm
Starting to wonder if vodka has anything to with the fact that so many Russians and Russophiles seem to have such terrible reading comprehension?
Title: Re: Russia, the Last Colonial Empire
Post by: 90sRetroFan on September 07, 2021, 05:27:46 am
"So when will China and Japan finally join forces and realize Solovyov's vision?"

Let's not hold our breaths:

https://us.yahoo.com/news/kyoto-themed-shopping-street-china-071824978.html

Quote
A Kyoto-themed shopping street in China was forced to shut down after social media users accused it of being a form of 'Japanese occupation' and 'cultural invasion'

On the other hand:

https://www.the-sun.com/uncategorized/1659756/china-fake-copy-france/

(https://www.thesun.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/KH-COMPOSITE-CHINA-FRANCE-2.jpg?strip=all&w=960)

(https://www.thesun.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/KH-COMPOSITE-CHINA-FRANCE-4.jpg?strip=all&w=960)

(https://www.thesun.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/KH-COMPOSITE-CHINA-FRANCE-3.jpg?strip=all&w=960)

(https://www.thesun.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/KH-COMPOSITE-CHINA-FRANCE-7.jpg?strip=all&w=960)

(https://www.thesun.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/KH-COMPOSITE-CHINA-FRANCE-8.jpg?strip=all&w=960)

https://slate.com/news-and-politics/2018/01/chinas-fake-european-cities-have-been-transformed-into-something-much-more-interesting.html

(https://compote.slate.com/images/a42159a9-319e-4b0a-bfba-c2126469439f.jpeg?width=1280&rect=1560x1040&offset=0x0)

(https://compote.slate.com/images/e5a57ad9-8b34-4e06-8f96-9414732f3c0f.jpeg?width=1280&rect=1560x1040&offset=0x0)

(https://compote.slate.com/images/d66c8573-3705-4af0-ac0b-c88fed1a51a1.jpeg?width=1280&rect=1560x1040&offset=0x0)

No complaints about these. Why not? (Answer: Eurocentrism.)

China and Japan will only join forces when they remember how they used to see the West:

https://supchina.com/2021/08/11/the-start-of-modern-sino-japanese-relations/

Quote
On July 31, 1862, the Japanese steamship Senzaimaru arrived at Nagasaki, ending a two-month stay in China. Crewed on its voyage home by 10 Dutch sailors, the mission of “a handful of shogunal [government] officials, three merchants and other officials associated with the Nagasaki Commercial Hall, and a large number of young samurai attendants whose job description was never explicitly spelled out,” as historian Joshua Fogel described them in his book Maiden Voyage, the Senzaimaru was the first official overseas embassy sent from Japan to China in more than 300 years.
...
In the 19th century, both China and Japan were grappling with expanding European maritime power, power that had made their previous trade policies unsustainable.
...
With this in mind, Japan looked toward the nearby Chinese treaty ports to see what this new era of international trade might offer.

The most obvious and promising link to be made was between Nagasaki and Shanghai. Nagasaki — in the news this week on the anniversary of the second atomic bombing in 1945 — had been Japan’s only port open to international trade for centuries, a role it retained as commerce with the United States and Europe began to open in the 1850s. Shanghai, quickly emerging as China’s most cosmopolitan port, was also the closest point on the Chinese mainland to Nagasaki, just 500 miles away across the East China Sea.
...
The Japanese observers were also keenly aware of the disparate situation of Chinese and Westerners in the city. “Although the harbor is all hustle-bustle, it is due entirely to the large number of foreign merchant vessels. Within and without the walled city are numerous foreign commercial houses which are thus thriving. The places where I have seen Chinese living are often poor and filthy.” The same samurai who had noted the port’s prosperity later corrected himself, writing, “Pray, do not say of Shanghai that this is a flourishing place, For how much of it is being transported home on barbarian ships?”
...
“The main purpose of the mission of the Senzaimaru was to observe the Western world in microcosm in Shanghai,” he writes. “In this way, Shanghai was to serve a double role as microcosm both of the West and of China.” The Japanese observers came away from their time in Shanghai repulsed by Western racism and arrogance. They viewed the exploitation of China as a lesson for Japan: in particular, the Qing acceptance of Western aid to fight the Taiping rebels — the Senzaimaru arrived at the height of the Taiping War — as a deal with the devil that would lead China to ruin. They were not wrong.
Title: Re: Russia, the Last Colonial Empire
Post by: Dazhbog on September 08, 2021, 09:18:50 am
Let's not hold our breaths

If you prefer this:

(https://compote.slate.com/images/a42159a9-319e-4b0a-bfba-c2126469439f.jpeg?width=1280&rect=1560x1040&offset=0x0)

...over this:

(https://www.air-golf.com/sites/default/files/article/images/kyoto%20head%20photo.jpg)

...you deserve to be treated like this:

(https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/75/Beheading_of_Leonard_George_Siffleet.jpg/433px-Beheading_of_Leonard_George_Siffleet.jpg)

The most obvious and promising link to be made was between Nagasaki and Shanghai.

...

The Japanese observers were also keenly aware of the disparate situation of Chinese and Westerners in the city.

...

The Japanese observers came away from their time in Shanghai repulsed by Western racism and arrogance.

Daily reminder that Russians were an integral part of the Western colonial presence in Shanghai:

https://www.rbth.com/arts/2015/09/18/russian_noon_a_look_at_white_emigre_life_in_1930s_shanghai_49337.html

Quote
The first Russians to move to Shanghai were the wealth-seeking tea merchants who boarded the ferries from Vladivostok to the Chinese metropolis, which had a large international settlement, set up after the Qing Dynasty lost the First Opium War to the British Empire.

...

The Russian community in Shanghai began to grow from 300 in 1906 to more than 10,000 with a decade, as revolutionary winds swept across Russia.

Also, daily reminder that once declared "white", you are always "white", no matter how low your socioeconomic status and how much wealthier "whites" look down on you based on that:

Quote
Jinglei Wan, a historian based in Shanghai says the Russians in the city had a unique position in the race-based hierarchy in the city. “They enjoyed a status that was higher than the Chinese [...].

...

“The poorer of the lot even became beggars, burglars and pick-pockets,” says Wan “When they were caught, they were tried under Chinese law since they lost extraterritorial protections when they refused Soviet citizenship.”  He adds that the poorer Russians were an “eyesore” for the Westerners who hated the sight of destitute drunken Europeans being arrested by the police.

Unfortunately, Eurocentrism was by then already firmly entrenched in Chinese consciousness, hence why interwar China never even lifted a finger to liquidate this colonial cesspit. In fact, it was the Japanese who admirably cleared Shanghai of Western colonialists:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shanghai_International_Settlement#Japanese_occupy_the_International_Settlement_(1941)

Quote
Anglo-American influence effectively ended after 8 December 1941, when the Imperial Japanese Army entered and occupied the British and American controlled parts of the city in the wake of the attack on Pearl Harbor. The British and Americans troops taken by surprise surrendered without a shot, with the exception of the only British riverboat in Shanghai, HMS Peterel, which refused to surrender: six of the 18 British crew who were on board at the time were killed when the ship was sunk when the Japanese opened fire at almost point-blank range.

...

European residents of the International Settlement were forced to wear armbands to differentiate them, were evicted from their homes, and [...] were liable to maltreatment. All were liable for punitive punishments, torture and even death during the period of Japanese occupation. The Japanese sent European and American citizens to be interned at the Lunghua Civilian Assembly Center, a work camp on what was then the outskirts of Shanghai. Survivors of Lunghua were released in August 1945.

Shanghai was notable for a long period as the only place in the world that unconditionally offered refuge for Jews escaping from the Nazis. These refugees often lived in squalid conditions in an area known as the Shanghai Ghetto in Hongkew. On 21 August 1941 the Japanese government closed Hongkew to Jewish immigration.

...and ultimately restored Chinese sovereignty:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shanghai_International_Settlement#Return_to_Chinese_rule

Quote
[...] in July 1943, the Japanese retroceded the SMC to the City Government of Shanghai, which was then in the hands of the pro-Japanese Wang Jingwei Government.
Title: Re: Russia, the Last Colonial Empire
Post by: 90sRetroFan on September 08, 2021, 10:53:14 pm
"If you prefer this:"

The problem is, they really do:

https://trueleft.createaforum.com/issues/decolonized-housing-(america-edition)/msg2003/#msg2003

And worse, False Leftists try to pass it off with insincere explanations like: "China was closed off from the outside world during the Mao era, so now they are overcompensating with interest in foreign styles." Oh yeah? So where is China's Somali architecture? Where are China's fake Incan cities? Everyone knows explanations like the above are utter bullshit. Just admit they are Eurocentrists already!

To be fair, Japan succumbed even earlier:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_architecture#Meiji,_Taish%C5%8D,_and_early_Sh%C5%8Dwa_periods

"Daily reminder that Russians were an integral part of the Western colonial presence in Shanghai:"

Exactly. See also:

https://trueleft.createaforum.com/questions-debates/is-putin's-russia-duginist-autocracy/msg8418/#msg8418

Title: Re: Russia, the Last Colonial Empire
Post by: guest55 on January 20, 2022, 01:28:04 pm
Why the Russian Colonization of the Americas Failed - DOCUMENTARY
Quote
Kings and Generals animated historical documentary series on early modern history and economic history continue with a video on the Russian Colonization of the Americas, as we see how Russia tried to create colonies in California, Hawaii and Alaska during the late stage of the age of colonization, and why these colonization efforts failed.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hVUbiefgVJQ
Title: Re: Russia, the Last Colonial Empire
Post by: 90sRetroFan on March 02, 2022, 08:00:42 pm
Our enemies think this is a good thing:

https://vdare.com/posts/richard-pipes-between-1700-and-1870-russia-spent-106-years-fighting-38-military-campaigns-of-which-36-had-been-offensive

Quote
the Russian General Staff carried out a comprehensive study of Russian warfare since the foundations of the state. In the summary volume, the editor told his readers that they could take pride in their country’s military record and face the future with confidence — between 1700 and 1870, Russia had spent 106 years fighting 38 military campaigns, of which 36 had been “offensive”

N. N. Sukhotin, Voina v istorii russkogo mira (St. Petersburg, 1898), 113-14, providing a report to the tsar from the Imperial General Staff, observed that between 1700 and 1870, Russia was at war 106 years. I am indebted to Richard Pipes for pointing out this source to me. He quotes it in his Survival Is Not Enough: Soviet Realities and America’s Future (New York: Simon and Shuster, 1984), 36, 286. Its special importance is that it shows that Russian military elites themselves certainly did not believe that Russia was the victim of frequent foreign invasions. In fact, the only serious invasions of Russian territory since the Swedish campaigns against Peter the Great were Napoleon’s campaign in 1812, the Crimean War in 1854-55, and Hitler’s invasion in 1941. Toward the end of World War I, of course, German forces pressed into Russian territory against no Bolshevik resistance, but the war began in 1914 with a large Russian offensive into East Prussia. Notwithstanding the actual record of Russia’s habit of frequently invading its neighbors, the popular image remains strong in Russia that it has always and frequently been the victim, not the perpetrator of wars.

These counts leave out some border skirmishes, such as with Japan in the late 1930s and with China in the late 1960s, which saw heavy fighting as a test of strength on an island in the Amur River not allocated by treaty.

In summary, though, you don’t get to be as vast as Russia without starting some wars.
Title: Re: Russia, the Last Colonial Empire
Post by: 90sRetroFan on March 03, 2022, 08:33:30 pm
How our enemies see Russia, concisely put:

(https://vdare.com/public_upload/publication/featured_image/57046/VDARE-super-serbia.jpg)

Title: Re: Russia, the Last Colonial Empire
Post by: 90sRetroFan on March 08, 2022, 11:41:29 pm
Another useful reference map:

(https://carnegieendowment.org/site-assets/interactives/russia-oil-map/map_russia-oil-gordon.png)

Viewed in conjunction with the map here:

https://trueleft.createaforum.com/colonial-era/russia-the-last-colonial-empire/msg5125/#msg5125

all the oil that Russia has drilled from stolen territory should regarded as stolen oil.
Title: Re: Russia, the Last Colonial Empire
Post by: 90sRetroFan on March 15, 2022, 01:36:57 am
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_conquest_of_Siberia#Conquest_and_exploration

Quote
In order to subjugate the natives and collect yasak (fur tribute), a series of winter outposts (zimovie) and forts (ostrogs) were built at the confluences of major rivers and streams and important portages. The first among these were Tyumen and Tobolsk — the former built in 1586 by Vasilii Sukin and Ivan Miasnoi, and the latter the following year by Danilo Chulkov.[2] Tobolsk would become the nerve center of the conquest.[3]
...
the Russians advanced first towards Lake Baikal and then the Sea of Okhotsk and the Amur River. However, when they first reached the Chinese border they encountered people that were equipped with artillery pieces and here they halted.

Moral of the story: firepower is the only effective way to communicate with Turanians.

Quote
At the hands of people such as Vasilii Poyarkov in 1645 and Yerofei Khabarov in 1650 some many people, including members of the Daur tribe, were killed by the Cossacks. 8,000 out of a previous population of 20,000 in Kamchatka remained after the first half century of the Russian conquest.[7] The Daurs initially deserted their villages fearing the reported cruelty of the Russians the first time Khabarov came.[8] The second time he came, the Daurs fought back against the Russians, but were slaughtered.[9] In the 17th century, indigenous peoples of the Amur region were attacked by Russians who came to be known as "red-beards".[10]

In the 1640s the Yakuts were subjected to violent expeditions during the Russian advance into the land near the Lena river, and on Kamchatka in the 1690s the Koryak, Kamchadals, and Chukchi were also subjected to this by the Russians according to Western historian Stephen Shenfield.[11] When the Russians did not obtain the demanded amount of yasak from the natives, the governor of Yakutsk, Piotr Golovin, who was a Cossack, used meat hooks to hang the native men. In the Lena basin, 70% of the Yakut population declined within 40 years, native women were raped and, along with children, were often enslaved in order to force the natives to pay the Yasak.[8]

According to John F. Richards:

Smallpox first reached western Siberia in 1630. In the 1650s, it moved east of the Yenisey, where it carried away up to 80 percent of the Tungus and Yakut populations. In the 1690s, smallpox epidemics reduced Yukagir numbers by an estimated 44 percent. The disease moved rapidly from group to group across Siberia. Death rates in epidemics reached 50 percent of the population. The scourge returned at twenty- to thirty-year intervals, with dreadful results among the young.[6]

In Kamchatka, the Russians crushed the Itelmens uprisings against their rule in 1706, 1731, and 1741. The first time, the Itelmen were armed with stone weapons and were badly unprepared and equipped but they used gunpowder weapons the second time. The Russians faced tougher resistance when from 1745–56 they tried to subjugate the gun and bow equipped Koraks until their victory. The Russian Cossacks also faced fierce resistance and were forced to give up when trying unsuccessfully to wipe out the Chukchi in 1729, 1730–1, and 1744–7.[12] After the Russian defeat in 1729 at Chukchi hands, the Russian commander Major Pavlutskiy was responsible for the Russian war against the Chukchi and the mass slaughters and enslavement of Chukchi women and children in 1730–31, but his cruelty only made the Chukchis fight more fiercely.[13] Cleansing of the Chukchis and Koraks was ordered by Empress Elizabeth in 1742 to totally expel them from their native lands and erase their culture through war. The command was that the natives be "totally extirpated" with Pavlutskiy leading again in this war from 1744–47 in which he led to the Cossacks "with the help of Almighty God and to the good fortune of Her Imperial Highness", to slaughter the Chukchi men and enslave their women and children as booty. However the Chukchi ended this campaign and forced them to give up by killing Pavlutskiy and decapitating him.[14]

It goes without saying that the Orthodox Church worships Yahweh.

Quote
The Russians were also launching wars and slaughters against the Koraks in 1744 and 1753–4. After the Russians tried to force the natives to convert to Christianity, the different native peoples like the Koraks, Chukchis, Itelmens, and Yukagirs all united to drive the Russians out of their land in the 1740s, culminating in the assault on Nizhnekamchatsk fort in 1746.[15] Kamchatka today is European in demographics and culture with only 2.5% of it being native, around 10,000 from a previous number of 150,000, due to the mass slaughters by the Cossacks after its annexation in 1697 of the Itelmen and Koryaks throughout the first decades of Russian rule. The killings by the Russian Cossacks devastated the native peoples of Kamchatka.[16] In addition to committing massacres the Cossacks also devastated the wildlife by slaughtering massive numbers of animals for fur.[17] 90% of the Kamchadals and half of the Vogules were killed from the eighteenth to nineteenth centuries and the rapid slaughter of the indigenous population led to entire ethnic groups being entirely wiped out, with around 12 exterminated groups which could be named by Nikolai Iadrintsev as of 1882. Much of the slaughter was brought on by the fur trade.[18]

According to Western historian James Forsyth, Aleut men in the Aleutians were subjects to the Russians for the first 20 years of Russian rule, as they hunted for the Russians while Aleut women and children were held as captives as a means to maintain this relationship.[19]
...
The Russian colonization of Siberia and conquest of its indigenous peoples has been compared to European colonization of the Americas and its natives, with similar negative impacts on the natives and the appropriation of their land.[21]

NEVER FORGIVE. NEVER FORGET.
Title: Re: Russia, the Last Colonial Empire
Post by: rp on March 16, 2022, 12:21:03 am
How Russia tried to conquer British India:
https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.rbth.com/history/330174-russia-tried-to-conquer-india/amp
Title: Re: Russia, the Last Colonial Empire
Post by: rp on March 16, 2022, 12:28:31 am
Basically, the way I see it, the only reason the Russians didn't practice overt "imperialist" colonialism was because, in Dugin's own words, Russia has been a "Telluric" (land based) power as opposed to the Atlantic West, which has been a "Thalassocratic" (maritime) power.

This does not mean, however, that they were not colonialist (they were).
Title: Re: Russia, the Last Colonial Empire
Post by: 90sRetroFan on April 04, 2022, 01:01:08 am
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_Dalian

Quote
Located near the southernmost point of the Liaodong Peninsula, the city of Dalian came under the territorial control of the Russian Empire from 1898 until that country's defeat in the Russo-Japanese War in 1905.
...
In 1897 Russia signed with Qing China a secret agreement for the establishment under Russian guidance of the Chinese Eastern Railway. On December 15, 1897, Russia, fearing that without decisive action it might lose its chance to seize the port of Dalian to another imperial power such as Germany, which earlier that year had taken control of Qingdao, had its fleet steam into Dalian harbor. On March 27, 1898, Russia signed the Pavlov Agreement with China, which granted Russia a 25-year lease on Dalian and Lushun and exclusive right to lay a branch of the Chinese Eastern Railway to them - what would become the South Manchurian Railway.[2] At first, the flags of both China and Russia were raised over the city, something that assuaged the anger of some local Chinese. Within a few weeks, however, the Chinese ensign was no longer flying.[3]

The part in bold summarizes the Russian attitude towards China.

Quote
Dalniy soon became a center of Russian military power in the Far East. In 1897 there were already 12,500 Russian troops in Lushun and the surrounding area, a number that would grow to 35,000 by 1904.[4] However, the powerful Russian Finance Minister Sergei Witte had larger visions for the region than just a military garrison. Witte was overseeing the development of the Chinese Eastern Railway and soon pushed through plans to extend the railway from Harbin to the port at Dalny. In such a vision the city would become a powerful open trading port in the Far East while nearby Port Arthur would be an exclusive Russian military city. On 8 November 1899, Nicholas II ordered the start of construction of this port city, and - at Witte's suggestion - christened the city Dal’nii (or Dalniy: Dalian), meaning “far away” in Russian.[5]
...
The Russian development of the city by necessity involved the uprooting of the location's original Chinese inhabitants. In the summer of 1899, this sparked an angry riot in which Chinese attacked the railway office with stones, dragging away the Chinese clerks and interpreters working for the Russians.
...
By 1904 enough progress had been made on the development of the city to embolden the Comte Cassini, Russian minister to the United States, to declare that “Harbin and Dalniy are monuments to Russian progressiveness and civilization.”[12]

The part in bold summarizes the correct Chinese attitude towards Russia which existed prior to Westernization.

Quote
In the mid-1990s the mayor of Dalian, Bo Xilai, conceived the idea of renovating the remaining Russian-era structures on the street, adding new ones built in a Russian style, and renaming the street Russian Street. Work on the project began in 1999 and brought in Russian architects and other experts. Eight Russian era buildings were renovated, including the former Russian Dalniy City Hall, six new buildings were built, and six other existing structures were given "Russian façades" to match the street's theme. The newly renovated street was inaugurated on 1 October 2000.[14]

The part in bold summarizes the Chinese Eurocentrist attitude towards Russia accompanying Westernization.

(https://smallimg.pngkey.com/png/small/129-1297667_clip-free-stock-collection-of-free-failing-clipart.png)
Title: Russia, the Last Colonial Empire
Post by: rp on April 13, 2022, 08:41:03 pm
I was just watching this video on "Vladivostok":
https://youtu.be/pXAS-xv-aKw

You would think that the ethnic makeup of the residents would at least have some "Asiatic" admixture, given that the town borders China, and that this would be reflected in the phenotypes. But no; the demographics seem to be monoethnically "White", which suggests that the original inhabitants were displaced.
Title: Re: Russia, the Last Colonial Empire
Post by: 90sRetroFan on April 13, 2022, 09:22:41 pm
"You would think that the ethnic makeup of the residents would at least have some "Asiatic" admixture"

I know you put "" around it, but it is still inaccurate. This is the only correct definition of Asia:

(https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/ca/Roman_Empire_-_Asia_%28125_AD%29.svg/924px-Roman_Empire_-_Asia_%28125_AD%29.svg.png)

Quote
The word "Asia" comes from the Greek word Ἀσία, originally only applied to the eastern shore of the Aegean Sea,[1] known to the Lydians who occupied it as Assuwa. It came to be used by the Greeks for all of Lydia (the northwestern part of what is today Turkey), that shore being the closest part of Lydia to modern-day Greece. The Roman province of Asia occupied almost exactly the same territory as that of the Lydian kingdom.

So no, I would not expect to see much Lydian blood in Manchuria.

"the town borders China"

The town was in China until Russia moved the border!

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vladivostok#Names_and_etymology

Quote
Chinese maps from the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368) label Vladivostok as Yongmingcheng (永明城; Yǒngmíngchéng).[citation needed] Since the Qing dynasty, the city has been known as Haishenwai (海參崴; Hǎishēnwăi) in Chinese, from the Manchu Haišenwai (Manchu: ᡥᠠᡳᡧᡝᠨᠸᡝᡳ; Möllendorff: Haišenwai; Abkai: Haixenwai) or 'small seaside village'.[17]

By the way, how Eurocentrist is present-day China? Here is another exhibit:

Quote
In China, Vladivostok is now officially known by the transliteration 符拉迪沃斯托克 (Fúlādíwòsītuōkè), although the historical Chinese name 海参崴 (Hǎishēnwǎi) is still often used in common parlance and outside Mainland China to refer to the city.[18][19] According to the provisions of the Chinese government, all maps published in China have to bracket the city's Chinese name.[20]

(https://smallimg.pngkey.com/png/small/129-1297667_clip-free-stock-collection-of-free-failing-clipart.png)

See also:

https://trueleft.createaforum.com/issues/diplomatic-decolonization/msg1207/#msg1207

"the original inhabitants were displaced."

Yep:

https://trueleft.createaforum.com/colonial-era/russia-the-last-colonial-empire/msg7661/#msg7661
Title: Re: Russia, the Last Colonial Empire
Post by: rp on April 13, 2022, 09:38:39 pm
"So no, I would not expect to see much Lydian blood in Manchuria."
What I meant to say was ethnic Manchu features. But I do not see any among the "residents" (settlers).
Title: Re: Russia, the Last Colonial Empire
Post by: guest55 on April 13, 2022, 10:35:42 pm
Trivia: Many Polish folk songs are in Lydian mode....
Title: Re: Russia, the Last Colonial Empire
Post by: rp on April 19, 2022, 03:05:57 am
Westernized "Asian" YouTuber makes video claiming that Russia and China have no border disputes, and that China can't claim Outer Manchuria because it is "ethnically and culturally Russian/Jewish".:
https://youtu.be/8fJ7FuQByjc
Title: How Russia Became an Empire
Post by: guest55 on May 22, 2022, 11:32:09 pm
How Russia Became an Empire - Great Northern War DOCUMENTARY
Quote
Kings and Generals animated historical animated documentary series on the Early Modern history continues with a video on the Great Northern War in which we will talk about the conflict in which the Swedish king Charles XII attempted to win against an alliance of Russia, Denmark, Prussia, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the others. This conflict led to the rise of the Russian empire under Peter I, the fall of the Swedish empire and the destabilization of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. We will cover all the major battles of this conflict, including Gedebusch, Gangut, Narva, Poltava, Kliszow, Fraustadt, Lesnaya and many more.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rDCFxgHDncc
Title: Why is the Russian army so brutal? | Military historian Antony Beevor
Post by: guest55 on May 25, 2022, 04:59:37 pm
Why is the Russian army so brutal? | Military historian Antony Beevor
Quote
There seems no doubt that atrocities and war crimes have been committed on a massive scale by Russian soldiers in Ukraine. Why is the Russian army so brutal? We are joined by one of Britain's foremost historians Anthony Beevor whose new book is “Russia: Revolution and Civil War 1917-1921”
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UvhI_mS1zx8
Title: Re: Russia, the Last Colonial Empire
Post by: 90sRetroFan on June 07, 2022, 07:52:23 pm
(https://www.eurocanadians.ca/wp-content/uploads/2022/06/985bbeaceb4aed30.jpg)
Title: Re: Russia, the Last Colonial Empire
Post by: 90sRetroFan on August 10, 2022, 09:12:49 pm
Continuing from:

https://trueleft.createaforum.com/true-left-vs-false-left/war/msg15051/#msg15051

Quote
(https://images.chinahighlights.com/allpicture/2021/11/fa706736f71647e980a59460.jpg)

besides Outer Manchuria being directly stolen by Russia, who was really behind the breakaway of Mongolia? Answer:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mongolian_Revolution_of_1921

Quote
Although nominally independent, the Mongolian People's Republic was a satellite state of the Soviet Union until a third Mongolian revolution in January 1990.
...
Early in 1919, Grigori Semyonov, a White Guard general, had assembled a group of Buryats and Inner Mongols in Siberia for the formation of a pan-Mongolian state. The Khalkhas were invited to join, but they refused. Semyonov threatened an invasion to force them to participate. This threat galvanized the lay princes, who now saw a larger opportunity: the end of theocratic rule. In August, the Mongolian Foreign Minister approached Chen Yi with a message from the "representatives of the four aimags" (i.e., the Khalkhas) with a request for military assistance against Semyonov. More importantly, perhaps, it contained a declaration that the Khalkhas were unanimous in their desire to abolish autonomy and restore the previous Qing system.
...
Russian expatriates in Urga had elected a revolutionary "Municipal Duma", headed by Bolshevik sympathisers, which had learned of the Consular Hill group. In early March 1920, the Duma was sending one of its members, I. Sorokovikov, to Irkutsk. It decided that he should also take a report with him about these Mongolians. Sorokovikov met with representatives of the two groups. On his return to Urga in June, he met with them again, promising that the Soviet government would provide "assistance of all kinds" to the Mongolian "workers". He invited them to send representatives to Russia for further discussions.[20]

A new sense of purposefulness now animated both groups. They had maintained a wary distance from one another, perhaps because of their different agendas—the Consular Hill group espousing a rather progressive social program while the East Urga group was more nationalistic in its goals—and there had been little cooperation between the two. The Soviet invitation changed that. The two groups met on 25 June, and formed the "Mongolian People's Party" (renamed later the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party), adopted a "Party Oath", and agreed to send Danzan and Choibalsan as delegates to Russia.[21]

Danzan and Choibalsan arrived in Verkhneudinsk, the capital of the pro-Soviet Far Eastern Republic, in the first part of July. They met with Boris Shumyatsky, then acting head of the government. Shumyatsky knew little about them, and for three weeks dodged their demands for a speedy Soviet decision whether or not to provide military assistance to the Mongolians against the Chinese. Finally, perhaps at Shumyatsky's suggestion, they sent a telegram to members of the MPP in Urga with a coded message that they should obtain a letter, stamped with the seal of the Bogd Khan, formally requesting Soviet assistance.
...
After several meetings with Soviet authorities in Omsk, the Mongolian delegation was told that such an important matter could be decided only in Moscow. Danzan and his compatriots left for Moscow, arriving in about mid-September. For over a month they met frequently but inconclusively with Soviet and Comintern officials.

A White Guard invasion of Mongolia under Baron Roman von Ungern-Sternberg, however, forced the Soviet government into action. In late October to early November 1920, around 1,000 troops under his command had laid siege to the Chinese garrison in Urga numbered about 7,000.
...
The Chinese garrison in Urga, however, successfully repulsed von Ungern-Sternberg's attack. This altered the Soviet strategy. The army of the Far Eastern Republic was already exhausted. Only the Fifth Army of the Reds was left on the eastern front, and already by late 1920 many of its more experienced units had either been demobilized, or sent west to fight in Poland, or assigned to the labor front, where they were needed to repair the badly damaged Siberian economy.[27] Thus, when the Chinese repulsed von Ungern-Sternberg, the Soviets on 28 November withdrew their order for an invasion.[28]

However, von Ungern-Sternberg launched a second attack in early February 1921. This time he was successful. Chinese soldiers and civilians fled the city in panic. With the fall of Urga, the Chinese administrations and military garrisons at Uliastai and Khovd departed quickly for Xinjiang. The Bogd Khan was restored as Mongolian monarch by von Ungern-Sternberg. The Bogd Khan and his government were also restored, and a solemn ceremony held on 22 February.
...
News of von Ungern-Sternberg's seizure of Urga again influenced Soviet plans. A plenary session of the Comintern in Irkutsk on February 10 passed a formal resolution to aid the "struggle of the Mongolian people for liberation and independence with money, guns and military instructors".[29] With Soviet support, the MPP was now a serious contender for power. The Party, hitherto rather amorphous and loosely connected, required better organisational and ideological definition. A party conference (subsequently regarded as the first congress of the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party) met secretly on 1–3 March at Kyakhta. The first session was attended by 17 persons, the second by 26. The Party approved the creation of an army command staff headed by Sükhbaatar with two Russian advisors, elected a central committee chaired by Danzan with one representative from the Comintern, and adopted a party manifesto composed by the progressive Buryat Jamsrangiin Tseveen.[30] On 13 March, a provisional government of seven men was formed, soon to be headed by Bodoo. On 18 March, the Mongolian guerrilla army, its ranks now enlarged to 400 through recruitment and conscription, seized the Chinese garrison at Kyakhta Maimaicheng (the Chinese portion of Kyakhta). A new confidence now animated the Party. It issued a proclamation announcing the formation of the government, the expulsion of the Chinese, and the promise to convene a congress of "representatives of the masses" to elect a permanent government.[31]

About ultra-Turanist von Ungern-Sternberg:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_von_Ungern-Sternberg

Quote
He also had Hungarian roots and claimed descent from Batu Khan, Genghis Khan's grandson, which played a role in his dream of reviving the Mongol Empire.[4]
...
As a boy, Ungern-Sternberg was noted for being such a ferocious bully that even the other bullies feared him and several parents forbade their children from playing with him as he was a "terror".[7] Ungern was well known for his love of torturing animals, and at the age of 12 he tried to strangle to death his cousin's pet owl for no particularly good reason other than his cruelty towards animals.[7]
...
Ungern-Sternberg believed that return to monarchies in Europe was possible with the aid of "cavalry people" – meaning Russian Cossacks, Buryats, Tatars, Mongols, Kyrgyz, Kalmyks, etc.[10]
...
In 1905, he left the school to join the fighting in eastern Russia during the Russo-Japanese War, but it is unclear whether he participated in operations against the Japanese or if all military operations had ceased before his arrival in Manchuria,[13] although he was awarded the Russo-Japanese War Medal in 1913.[14]
...
There is a widespread view that he was viewed by Mongols as the incarnation of the "God of War" (the figure of Jamsaran in Tibetan and Mongol folklore). Although many Mongols may have believed him to be a deity or at the very least a re-incarnation of Genghis Khan, Ungern was never officially proclaimed to be any of those incarnations.[20]

After graduating, he served as an officer in eastern Siberia in the 1st Argunsky and then in the 1st Amursky Cossack regiments, where he became enthralled with the lifestyle of nomadic peoples, such as the Mongols and Buryats.
...
Ungern was an excellent horseman, who earned the respect of the Mongols and the Buryats because of his skill at riding and fighting from a horse and for being equally adept at using both a gun and his sword.[25]
Title: Re: Russia, the Last Colonial Empire
Post by: NSFAN on August 19, 2022, 01:43:41 am
The World's Last Colonial Empire: Collapse or Survival?
Quote
Is Russian society ready to make the full sacrifice for the country's superpower? Or, is it however exactly the opposite?
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H5p--KQ0ly0

Another excellent video from the Good Times Bad Times channel.
Title: Re: Russia, the Last Colonial Empire
Post by: 90sRetroFan on September 23, 2022, 03:23:44 am
A useful summary:

https://chinapower.csis.org/china-russia-relationship-weaknesses-mistrust/

Quote
In the 19th century, the Russian Empire was party to many of the “unequal treaties” that compelled China to hand over territory, money, and other spoils to European powers. The 1858 Treaty of Aigun and 1860 Treaty of Peking were particularly harsh, forcing China to forfeit approximately 1 million square kilometers (km) of territory to the Russian Empire.

Treaty of Kulja (1851)   Russia gained access to trade with areas in Xinjiang.
Treaty of Aigun (1858)   China forfeited over 600,000 square kilometers of land to Russia.
Treaty of Tientsin (1858)   Russia gained the right to trade with treaty ports by sea, as well as expanded extraterritoriality in treaty ports. Russia also established a legation in Beijing.
Treaty of Peking (1860)   China ceded large swaths of its northeastern territory to Russia.
Treaty of St. Petersburg (1881)   China paid Russia 9 million silver rubles. Russia expanded its consular network in Western China and Russian traders were allowed duty-free trade in Xinjiang and Mongolia.
Li-Lobanov Treaty (1896)   Russian warships gained access to Chinese ports. Russia was permitted to build a railway through Heilongjiang and Jilin Provinces and station troops to protect it. China reduced tariff rates on Russian goods.
Convention for the Lease of the Liaotung Peninsula (1898)   Russia was granted the lease to Port Arthur (in modern day Dalian) and Russian railways were permitted to extend to the port.
Boxer Protocol (1900)   China was forced to pay 450 million taels of silver to 8 powers, with the lion’s share (29 percent) going to Russia.
Sino-Soviet Border Conflicts (1968-1969)   China and Russia engaged in multiple border skirmishes, including at Zhenbao Island, where 72 were killed and 68 wounded on the Chinese side.

NEVER FORGIVE. NEVER FORGET.
Title: Re: Russia, the Last Colonial Empire
Post by: 90sRetroFan on October 17, 2022, 02:46:23 am
Today let's look at:

(https://newlinesinstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/20201217-Caucasus-4-AreasTakenFromPersiaByRussia-1-1024x736.png)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russo-Persian_War_(1722%E2%80%931723)

Quote
The Russo-Persian War of 1722–1723, known in Russian historiography as the Persian campaign of Peter the Great,[9] was a war between the Russian Empire and Safavid Iran, triggered by the tsar's attempt to expand Russian influence in the Caspian and Caucasus regions and to prevent its rival, the Ottoman Empire, from territorial gains in the region at the expense of declining Safavid Iran.

The Russian victory ratified for Safavid Iran's cession of their territories in the North Caucasus, South Caucasus and contemporary northern Iran to Russia, comprising the cities of Derbent (southern Dagestan) and Baku and their nearby surrounding lands, as well as the provinces of Gilan, Shirvan, Mazandaran and Astarabad conform the Treaty of Saint Petersburg (1723).[8]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Saint_Petersburg_(1723)

Quote
The Treaty of Saint Petersburg of 23 September [O.S. 12 September] 1723[1][2] concluded the Russo-Persian War of 1722-1723 between Imperial Russia and Safavid Iran. It ratified Iran's forced ceding of its territories in the North Caucasus, South Caucasus, and contemporary mainland Northern Iran, comprising Derbent (Dagestan), Baku, the respective surrounding lands of Shirvan, as well as the provinces of Gilan, Mazandaran, and Astarabad.[3] The treaty further specified that the Iranian king would receive Russian troops for domestic peacekeeping.[4]

As the Cambridge History of Iran states;

"On 23 September 1723, his ambassador in Saint Petersburg, Ismail Beg, signed a humiliating treaty which stipulated that the Tsar would accord the shah friendship and help against rebels and would maintain the shah in tranquil possession of his throne. In return the shah promised to permanently cede to Russia: ... the towns of Darband (Derbent), Baku, with all the territories belonging to them, as well as the provinces: Gilan, Mazandaran, and Astarabad

Quote
Peter was determined to keep the newly conquered Iranian territories in the Caucasus and northern mainland Iran. However, he was concerned about their safety and thus ordered the fortifications at Derbent and Holy Cross to be strengthened.[8] He was determined to attach Gilan and Mazandaran to Russia.[8] In May 1724, the Tsar wrote to Matiushkin, Russian commander in Rasht, that he should invite "Armenians and other Christians, if there are such, to Gilan and Mazandaran and settle them, while Muslims should be very quietly, so that they would not know it, diminished in number as much as possible."[8]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russo-Persian_War_(1804%E2%80%931813)

Quote
The 1804–1813 Russo-Persian War was one of the many wars between the Persian Empire and Imperial Russia, and began like many of their wars as a territorial dispute. The new Persian king, Fath Ali Shah Qajar, wanted to consolidate the northernmost reaches of his kingdom—modern-day Georgia—which had been annexed by Tsar Paul I several years after the Russo-Persian War of 1796. Like his Persian counterpart, the Tsar Alexander I was also new to the throne and equally determined to control the disputed territories.

The war ended in 1813 with the Treaty of Gulistan which ceded the previously disputed territory of Georgia to Imperial Russia, and also the Iranian territories of Dagestan, most of what is nowadays Azerbaijan, and minor parts of Armenia.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Gulistan

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The Treaty of Gulistan (Russian: Гюлистанский договор; Persian: عهدنامه گلستان) was a peace treaty concluded between the Russian Empire and Iran on 24 October 1813 in the village of Gulistan (now in the Goranboy District of Azerbaijan) as a result of the first full-scale Russo-Persian War (1804 to 1813). The peace negotiations were precipitated by the successful storming of Lankaran by General Pyotr Kotlyarevsky on 1 January 1813. It was the first of the series of treaties (the last being the Akhal Treaty) signed between Qajar Iran and Imperial Russia that forced Persia to cede or recognize Russian influence over the territories that formerly were part of Iran.[1][2]

The treaty confirmed the ceding and inclusion of what is now Dagestan, eastern Georgia, most of the Republic of Azerbaijan and parts of northern Armenia from Iran into the Russian Empire.
...
Terms

"Russia by this instrument was confirmed in possession of all the khanates -- Karabagh, Ganja, Shekeen, Shirvan, Derbend, Kouba, and Baku, together with part of Talish and the fortress of Lenkoran. Persia further abandoned all pretensions to Daghestan, Georgia, Mingrelia, Imeretia, and Abkhazia."[18]
The lands include:
All the cities, towns, and villages of Georgia, including all the villages and towns on the coast of the Black Sea, such as:
Megrelia,
Abkhazia,
Imeretia,
Guria;
Almost all cities, towns, and villages of the khanates in the South Caucasus and partly North Caucasus:
Baku khanate,
Shirvan Khanate,
Derbent Khanate,
Karabakh khanate,
Ganja khanate,
Shaki Khanate,
Quba Khanate,
part of the Talysh Khanate;
Iran loses all rights to navigate the Caspian Sea, and Russia is granted exclusive rights to station its military fleet in the Caspian Sea.
...
Even today, Iran officially sees it and the later Treaty of Turkmenchay as some of its most humiliating treaties ever signed.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russo-Persian_War_(1826%E2%80%931828)

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The war had even more disastrous results for Persia than the 1804-1813 war, as the ensuing Treaty of Turkmenchay stripped Persia of its last remaining territories in the Caucasus, which comprised all of modern Armenia, the southern remainder of modern Azerbaijan, and modern Igdir in Turkey. Through the Gulistan and Turkmenchay treaties Persia lost all of its territories in the Caucasus to Russia. These territories had once extended throughout most of Transcaucasia and part of the North Caucasus.

The war marked the end of the era of the Russo-Persian Wars, with Russia now the unquestioned dominant power in the Caucasus. Persia (Iran) was forced to cede swaths of territories that it never regained. The conquered territories spent more than 160 years under Russian domination before establishing their independence, except Dagestan, which is still a Russian possession.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Turkmenchay

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The Treaty of Turkmenchay (Persian: عهدنامه ترکمنچای; Russian: Туркманчайский договор) was an agreement between Qajar Iran and the Russian Empire, which concluded the Russo-Persian War (1826–28). It was second of the series of treaties (the first was the 1813 Treaty of Gulistan and the last, the 1881 Treaty of Akhal) signed between Qajar Iran and Imperial Russia that forced Persia to cede or recognize Russian influence over the territories that formerly were part of Iran.[1][2]
...
Similarly to the 1813 Treaty of Gulistan, the treaty was imposed on Persia following a Russian military victory. Paskievich threatened to occupy Tehran in five days unless the treaty was signed.[4]
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Following this treaty, as well as the Treaty of Gulistan, Russia had finished conquering all the Caucasus territories from Qajar Iran what is now Dagestan, eastern Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia, all of which had formed part of its very concept for centuries.[5] The areas north of the Aras River, such as the territory of the contemporary nations of Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia and the North Caucasian Republic of Dagestan, were Iranian until they were occupied by Russia during the 19th century.[6][7][8][9][10][11]

Following the two treaties, the formerly Iranian territories came under the Russian, and later the Soviet control for approximately 180 years, and Dagestan remains a constituent republic within the Russian Federation to this day. Comprising most of the territory ceded in Gulistan and Turkmenchay treaties, three separate nations would gain independence following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991: Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia.

NEVER FORGIVE. NEVER FORGET.

The only good part:

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In the aftermath of the war and the signing of the treaty, anti-Russian sentiment in Persia was rampant. On 11 February 1829, an angry mob stormed the Russian embassy in Tehran and killed almost everyone inside. Among those killed in the massacre was the newly-appointed ambassador to Persia, Aleksander Griboyedov, a celebrated Russian playwright. Griboyedov had played an active role in negotiating the terms of the treaty.[21]
Title: The Forgotten US Invasion of Russia
Post by: NSFAN on November 26, 2022, 07:41:11 pm
The Forgotten US Invasion of Russia
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Decades before the beginning of the Cold War, the relationship between the US and the Soviet Government had already become heated. President Reagan had forgot to mention - or had simply forgotten - that American and Soviet troops had already engaged in active combat on several occasions, from August 1918 to April 1920. This is the story of the almost forgotten American invasion of Soviet Russia.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1OUv3dXD0T4
Title: Re: Russia, the Last Colonial Empire
Post by: NSFAN on November 28, 2022, 01:52:20 pm
'Russia is a neo-imperialist state' undefeated they will attack again | Chip Chapman
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R4b91sY_GGQ

Decolonize Russia
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To avoid more senseless bloodshed, the Kremlin must lose what empire it still retains.
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The former national security adviser Zbigniew Brzezinski once said that without Ukraine, Russia would cease to be an empire. It’s a pithy statement, but it’s not true. Even if Vladimir Putin fails to wrest back Ukraine, his country will remain a haphazard amalgamation of regions and nations with hugely varied histories, cultures, and languages. The Kremlin will continue ruling over colonial holdings in places including Chechnya, Tatarstan, Siberia, and the Arctic.

Russia’s history is one of almost ceaseless expansion and colonization, and Russia is the last European empire that has resisted even basic decolonization efforts, such as granting subject populations autonomy and a meaningful voice in choosing the country’s leaders. And as we’ve seen in Ukraine, Russia is willing to resort to war to reconquer regions it views as its rightful possessions.
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During and after the collapse of the Soviet Union, when the Russian empire hit its modern nadir, the United States refused to safeguard the newly won independence of multiple post-Soviet states, citing misplaced concerns about humiliating Moscow. Emboldened by the West’s reluctance, Moscow began to reclaim the lands it lost. Now Russia’s revanchism—aided by our inaction and broader ignorance of the history of Russian imperialism—has revived the possibility of nuclear conflict and instigated the worst security crisis the world has seen in decades. Once Ukraine staves off Russia’s attempt to recolonize it, the West must support full freedom for Russia’s imperial subjects.

The U.S. had an opportunity to unwind the Russian empire before. In September 1991, as the Soviet Union was falling apart, President George H. W. Bush convened his National Security Council. In the lead-up to the meeting, the White House seemed unsure how to handle the splintering superpower. Some of Bush’s closest advisers even called for trying to keep the Soviet Union together.

Defense Secretary Dick Cheney was not one of them. “We could get an authoritarian regime [in Russia] still,” he warned during the meeting. “I am concerned that a year or so from now, if it all goes sour, how we can answer that we did not do more.” His end goal was clear: as Deputy National Security Adviser Robert Gates later wrote, Cheney “wanted to see the dismantlement not only of the Soviet Union and the Russian empire but of Russia itself, so it could never again be a threat to the rest of the world.”

Bush demurred. Rather than accelerate the Soviet disintegration, he tried to avoid antagonizing Moscow, even as President Boris Yeltsin’s administration began pushing the anti-Ukrainian animus that Putin now embodies. For years—as Russia stabilized and eventually prospered, and as Cheney masterminded some of the most disastrous American foreign-policy decisions in recent decades—many believed that Bush had selected the better strategy. Armageddon, as one historian phrased it, was averted.
Entire article: https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2022/05/russia-putin-colonization-ukraine-chechnya/639428/

I would like to see the full dismantling of Russia also, as I'm sure many more would like to see it now too.