Author Topic: Western civilization is a health hazard  (Read 6694 times)

90sRetroFan

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Re: Western civilization is a health hazard
« on: July 02, 2020, 02:43:19 am »
OLD CONTENT contd.

We covered land and air travel, but let's not forget motorboats:

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The environmental impact of shipping includes air pollution, water pollution, acoustic, and oil pollution.[1] Ships are responsible for more than 18 percent of some air pollutants.[2]

It also includes greenhouse gas emissions. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) estimates that carbon dioxide emissions from shipping were equal to 2.2% of the global human-made emissions in 2012[3] and expects them to rise 50 to 250 percent by 2050 if no action is taken.[4]
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Ballast water discharges by ships can have a negative impact on the marine environment.[1]

Cruise ships, large tankers, and bulk cargo carriers use a huge amount of ballast water, which is often taken on in the coastal waters in one region after ships discharge wastewater or unload cargo, and discharged at the next port of call, wherever more cargo is loaded. Ballast water discharge typically contains a variety of biological materials, including plants, animals, viruses, and bacteria. These materials often include non-native, nuisance, invasive, exotic species that can cause extensive ecological and economic damage to aquatic ecosystems along with serious human health problems.
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Noise pollution caused by shipping and other human enterprises has increased in recent history.[10] The noise produced by ships can travel long distances, and marine species who may rely on sound for their orientation, communication, and feeding, can be harmed by this sound pollution.[11][12]

The Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species has identified ocean noise as a potential threat to marine life.[13] The disruption of whales' ability to communicate with one another is an extreme threat and is affecting their ability to survive. According to Discovery Channel's article on Sonic Sea Journeys Deep Into the Ocean,[14] over the last century, extremely loud noise from commercial ships, oil and gas exploration, naval sonar exercises and other sources has transformed the ocean's delicate acoustic habitat, challenging the ability of whales and other marine life to prosper and ultimately to survive. Whales are starting to react to this in ways that are life-threatening. Kenneth C. Balcomb, a whale researcher and a former U.S Navy officer,[15] states that the day March 15, 2000, is the day of infamy. As Discovery says,[16] where him and his crew discovered whales swimming dangerously close to the shore. They're supposed to be in deep water. So I pushed it back out to sea, says Balcomb.[17] Although sonar helps to protect us, it is destroying marine life. According to IFAW Animal Rescue Program Director Katie Moore,[18] "There's different ways that sounds can affect animals. There's that underlying ambient noise level that's rising, and rising, and rising that interferes with communication and their movement patterns. And then there's the more acute kind of traumatic impact of sound, that's causing physical damage or a really strong behavioral response. It's fight or flight".
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Marine mammals, such as whales and manatees, risk being struck by ships, causing injury and death.[1] For example, a collision with a ship traveling at only 15 knots has a 79% chance of being lethal to a whale.[19]

One notable example of the impact of ship collisions is the endangered North Atlantic right whale, of which 400 or less remain.[20] The greatest danger to the North Atlantic right whale is injury sustained from ship strikes.[19] Between 1970 and 1999, 35.5% of recorded deaths were attributed to collisions.[21] From 1999 to 2003, incidents of mortality and serious injury attributed to ship strikes averaged one per year. From 2004 to 2006, that number increased to 2.6.[22] Deaths from collisions has become an extinction threat.[23] The United States' National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) introduced vessel speed restrictions to reduce ship collisions with North Atlantic right whales in 2008, which expired in 2013.[24] However, in 2017 an unprecedented mortality event occurred, resulting in the deaths of 17 North Atlantic right whales caused primarily from ship-strikes and entanglement in fishing gear.[20]
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Exhaust gases from ships are considered to be a significant source of air pollution, both for conventional pollutants and greenhouse gases.[1]

There is a perception that cargo transport by ship is low in air pollutants, because for equal weight and distance it is the most efficient transport method, according to shipping researcher Alice Bows-Larkin.[25] This is particularly true in comparison to air freight; however, because sea shipment accounts for far more annual tonnage and the distances are often large, shipping's emissions are globally substantial.[26][25] A difficulty is that the year-on-year increasing amount shipping overwhelms gains in efficiency, such as from slow-steaming or the use of kites. The growth in tonne-kilometers of sea shipment has averaged 4 percent yearly since the 1990s.[27] And it has grown by a factor of 5 since the 1970s.[25] There are now over 100,000 transport ships at sea, of which about 6,000 are large container ships.[25]
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Air pollution from cruise ships is generated by diesel engines that burn high sulfur content fuel oil, also known as bunker oil, producing sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide and particulate, in addition to carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrocarbons.[1] Diesel exhaust has been classified by EPA as a likely human carcinogen. EPA recognizes that these emissions from marine diesel engines contribute to ozone and carbon monoxide nonattainment (i.e., failure to meet air quality standards), as well as adverse health effects associated with ambient concentrations of particulate matter and visibility, haze, acid deposition, and eutrophication and nitrification of water.[28]
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Of total global air emissions, shipping accounts for 18 to 30 percent of the nitrogen oxide and 9 percent of the sulphur oxides.[2][30] Sulfur in the air creates acid rain which damages crops and buildings. When inhaled, sulfur is known to cause respiratory problems and even increases the risk of a heart attack.[31]
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Most commonly associated with ship pollution are oil spills.[1] While less frequent than the pollution that occurs from daily operations, oil spills have devastating effects. While being toxic to marine life, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the components in crude oil, are very difficult to clean up, and last for years in the sediment and marine environment.[36] Marine species constantly exposed to PAHs can exhibit developmental problems, susceptibility to disease, and abnormal reproductive cycles. One of the more widely known spills was the Exxon Valdez incident in Alaska. The ship ran aground and dumped a massive amount of oil into the ocean in March 1989. Despite efforts of scientists, managers and volunteers, over 400,000 seabirds, about 1,000 sea otters, and immense numbers of fish were killed.[36]
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The cruise line industry dumps 255,000 US gallons (970 m3) of greywater and 30,000 US gallons (110 m3) of blackwater into the sea every day.[1] Blackwater is sewage, wastewater from toilets and medical facilities, which can contain harmful bacteria, pathogens, viruses, intestinal parasites, and harmful nutrients. Discharges of untreated or inadequately treated sewage can cause bacterial and viral contamination of fisheries and shellfish beds, producing risks to public health. Nutrients in sewage, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, promote excessive algal blooms, which consumes oxygen in the water and can lead to fish kills and destruction of other aquatic life. A large cruise ship (3,000 passengers and crew) generates an estimated 55,000 to 110,000 liters per day of blackwater waste.[42]
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Greywater is wastewater from the sinks, showers, galleys, laundry, and cleaning activities aboard a ship. It can contain a variety of pollutant substances, including fecal coliforms, detergents, oil and grease, metals, organic compounds, petroleum hydrocarbons, nutrients, food waste, medical and dental waste. Sampling done by the EPA and the state of Alaska found that untreated greywater from cruise ships can contain pollutants at variable strengths and that it can contain levels of fecal coliform bacteria several times greater than is typically found in untreated domestic wastewater.[43] Greywater has potential to cause adverse environmental effects because of concentrations of nutrients and other oxygen-demanding materials, in particular. Greywater is typically the largest source of liquid waste generated by cruise ships (90 to 95 percent of the total). Estimates of greywater range from 110 to 320 liters per day per person, or 330,000 to 960,000 liters per day for a 3,000-person cruise ship.[44]
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Solid waste generated on a ship includes glass, paper, cardboard, aluminium and steel cans, and plastics.[1] It can be either non-hazardous or hazardous in nature. Solid waste that enters the ocean may become marine debris, and can then pose a threat to marine organisms, humans, coastal communities, and industries that utilize marine waters. Cruise ships typically manage solid waste by a combination of source reduction, waste minimization, and recycling. However, as much as 75 percent of solid waste is incinerated on board, and the ash typically is discharged at sea, although some is landed ashore for disposal or recycling. Marine mammals, fish, sea turtles, and birds can be injured or killed from entanglement with plastics and other solid waste that may be released or disposed off of cruise ships. On average, each cruise ship passenger generates at least two pounds of non-hazardous solid waste per day.[45] With large cruise ships carrying several thousand passengers, the amount of waste generated in a day can be massive. For a large cruise ship, about 8 tons of solid waste are generated during a one-week cruise.[46] It has been estimated that 24 percent of the solid waste generated by vessels worldwide (by weight) comes from cruise ships.[47]
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On a ship, oil often leaks from engine and machinery spaces or from engine maintenance activities and mixes with water in the bilge, the lowest part of the hull of the ship. Though bilge water is filtered and cleaned before being discharged,[1] oil in even minute concentrations can kill fish or have various sub-lethal chronic effects. Bilge water also may contain solid wastes and pollutants containing high levels of oxygen-demanding material, oil and other chemicals. A typically large cruise ship will generate an average of 8 metric tons of oily bilge water for each 24 hours of operation.[49]

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More people starting to get it:

www.timeslive.co.za/politics/2019-03-23-whites-created-cyclone-idai-and-must-therefore-pay-says-blf/

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BLF president Andile Mngxitama charged in a statement that the cyclone, which hit Mozambique, Zimbabwe and Malawi, was “not a natural disaster but a direct consequence of the white, Western system of ecological assault for profits”.
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“The multitudes that died as a result of the cyclone are not victims of a natural disaster. This is mass murder which could be prevented if the West abandoned its ways,” Mngxitama stated.

Background:

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyclone_Idai

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Fracking:

www.commondreams.org/news/2019/06/19/we-need-ban-fracking-new-analysis-1500-scientific-studies-details-threat-health-and

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69 percent of original research studies on water quality found potential for, or actual evidence of, fracking-associated water contamination;
87 percent of original research studies on air quality found significant air pollutant emissions; and
84 percent of original research studies on human health risks found signs of harm or indication of potential harm.

"There is no evidence that fracking can operate without threatening public health directly and without imperiling climate stability upon which public health depends," the Compendium states.

Further information:

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_impact_of_hydraulic_fracturing

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Potential risks are "methane emissions from the wells, diesel fumes and other hazardous pollutants, ozone precursors or odours from hydraulic fracturing equipment, such as compressors, pumps, and valves". Also gases and hydraulic fracturing fluids dissolved in flowback water pose air emissions risks.[11] One study measured various air pollutants weekly for a year surrounding the development of a newly fractured gas well and detected nonmethane hydrocarbons, methylene chloride (a toxic solvent), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These pollutants have been shown to affect fetal outcomes.[17]

The relationship between hydraulic fracturing and air quality can influence acute and chronic respiratory illnesses, including exacerbation of asthma (induced by airborne particulates, ozone and exhaust from equipment used for drilling and transport) and COPD. For example, communities overlying the Marcellus shale have higher frequencies of asthma. Children, active young adults who spend time outdoors, and the elderly are particularly vulnerable. OSHA has also raised concerns about the long-term respiratory effects of occupational exposure to airborne silica at hydraulic fracturing sites. Silicosis can be associated with systemic autoimmune processes.[18]
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Also transportation of necessary water volume for hydraulic fracturing, if done by trucks, can cause emissions.[20] Piped water supplies can reduce the number of truck movements necessary.[21]
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Air pollution is of particular concern to workers at hydraulic fracturing well sites as the chemical emissions from storage tanks and open flowback pits combine with the geographically compounded air concentrations from surrounding wells.[18] Thirty seven percent of the chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing operations are volatile and can become airborne.[18]

Researchers Chen and Carter from the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville used atmospheric dispersion models (AERMOD) to estimate the potential exposure concentration of emissions for calculated radial distances of 5 m to 180m from emission sources.[23] The team examined emissions from 60,644 hydraulic fracturing wells and found “results showed the percentage of wells and their potential acute non-cancer, chronic non-cancer, acute cancer, and chronic cancer risks for exposure to workers were 12.41%, 0.11%, 7.53%, and 5.80%, respectively. Acute and chronic cancer risks were dominated by emissions from the chemical storage tanks within a 20 m radius.[23]
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Massive hydraulic fracturing typical of shale wells uses between 1.2 and 3.5 million US gallons (4,500 and 13,200 m3) of water per well, with large projects using up to 5 million US gallons (19,000 m3). Additional water is used when wells are refractured.[34][35] An average well requires 3 to 8 million US gallons (11,000 to 30,000 m3) of water over its lifetime.[35][36][37][38] According to the Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, greater volumes of fracturing fluids are required in Europe, where the shale depths average 1.5 times greater than in the U.S.[39]
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Concern has been raised over the increasing quantities of water for hydraulic fracturing in areas that experience water stress. Use of water for hydraulic fracturing can divert water from stream flow, water supplies for municipalities and industries such as power generation, as well as recreation and aquatic life.[42]
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In the United States, hydraulic fracturing fluids include proppants, radionuclide tracers, and other chemicals, many of which are toxic.[3] The type of chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing and their properties vary. While most of them are common and generally harmless, some chemicals are carcinogenic.[3] Out of 2,500 products used as hydraulic fracturing additives in the United States, 652 contained one or more of 29 chemical compounds which are either known or possible human carcinogens, regulated under the Safe Drinking Water Act for their risks to human health, or listed as hazardous air pollutants under the Clean Air Act.[3] Another 2011 study identified 632 chemicals used in United States natural gas operations, of which only 353 are well-described in the scientific literature.[18] A study that assessed health effects of chemicals used in fracturing found that 73% of the products had between 6 and 14 different adverse health effects including skin, eye, and sensory organ damage; respiratory distress including asthma; gastrointestinal and liver disease; brain and nervous system harms; cancers; and negative reproductive effects.[49]

An expansive study conducted by the Yale School of Public Health in 2016 found numerous chemicals involved in or released by hydraulic fracturing are carcinogenic.[50] Of the 119 compounds identified in this study with sufficient data, “44% of the water pollutants...were either confirmed or possible carcinogens.” However, the majority of chemicals lacked sufficient data on carcinogenic potential, highlighting the knowledge gap in this area. Further research is needed to identify both carcinogenic potential of chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing and their cancer risk.[50]
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Less than half of injected water is recovered as flowback or later production brine, and in many cases recovery is <30%.[52] As the fracturing fluid flows back through the well, it consists of spent fluids and may contain dissolved constituents such as minerals and brine waters.[53] In some cases, depending on the geology of the formation, it may contain uranium, radium, radon and thorium.[54] Estimates of the amount of injected fluid returning to the surface range from 15-20% to 30–70%.[52][53][55]
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Produced water spills and subsequent contamination of groundwater also presents a risk for exposure to carcinogens. Research that modeled the solute transport of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene) and naphthalene for a range of spill sizes on contrasting soils overlying groundwater at different depths found that benzene and toluene were expected to reach human health relevant concentration in groundwater because of their high concentrations in produced water, relatively low solid/liquid partition coefficient and low EPA drinking water limits for these contaminants.[61] Benzene is a known carcinogen which affects the central nervous system in the short term and can affect the bone marrow, blood production, immune system, and urogenital systems with long term exposure.[62]
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Volatile chemicals held in waste water evaporation ponds can evaporate into the atmosphere, or overflow. The runoff can also end up in groundwater systems. Groundwater may become contaminated by trucks carrying hydraulic fracturing chemicals and wastewater if they are involved in accidents on the way to hydraulic fracturing sites or disposal destinations.[63]

If Western civilization had never existed, none of this would be happening.
« Last Edit: July 02, 2020, 02:47:04 am by 90sRetroFan »